Undergraduate Degrees Offered
- Your undergraduate music engineering program may offer a Bachelor of Music, a Bachelor of Arts in Music or a Bachelor of Science in Music; the Bachelor of Music program expects an audition and continued instrument studies, while the Bachelor of Science stresses the science and technology of sound recording and the Bachelor of Arts emphasizes interdisciplinarity. The University of Miami’s Frost School of Music offers both bachelor’s and master’s programs in Music Engineering Technology, emphasizing sound recording and traditional music studies. Some liberal arts colleges, like the music department at Skidmore College, encourage students to declare self-designed majors leading to a Bachelor of Arts in Music Production and Engineering.
- Coursework beyond the music core will include an introduction to music engineering and production, music technology and composition. The composition courses may include electroacoustic music, computer music or both. Some programs require a course in music business, whereas others will require an introductory course in the music industry. At the Berklee College of Music, some of the learning outcomes for their program include learning how to multitrack record, edit and mix in addition to learning how to develop a business plan and make both technical and musically aesthetic decisions. All music engineering programs will expect studio work.
- Classes in music engineering typically explore state-of-the-art sound recording technology as their focus. During studio time, you will learn to record, edit, mix and compose music for individual and group projects. Though classes mostly focus on digital equipment, some classes allow you to explore analog and dated equipment for the purpose of teaching recording, historical and aesthetic concepts. You may also be required to take some more generalized audio engineering courses, which will give you the opportunity to do music engineering for film, television and radio projects.
Studio Work and Experience
- The most important aspect of your undergraduate experience as a music engineering major is your studio work and experience, both in classes and as an intern. Indiana University’s Jacobs School of Music offers a Bachelor of Science in Recording Arts, which treats your entire four years as a sound recording studio internship. In the studio, you will learn how to maintain and manage equipment and studio responsibilities. As an intern, you will have the opportunity to work with people in the music industry and will gain perspective about the professional role of music engineer.
- In the ’80s, synthesizers characterized pop music. Developments in digital technology meant that synthesizers were cheaper to manufacture and they became affordable for more musicians.The mass manufcature of synthesizers revolutionized the sound of dance and pop music.
- As digital technology became more widespread, music makers were able to use tools that were previously only available in analog form, such as mixers and effects.
- Improvements in home production devices and access to digital recording created a home recording revolution. People could record their music without paying to use a professional studio.
- The invention of the compact disc improved the quality of sound in recorded music. The recording industry benefited hugely as people replaced entire vinyl collections with compact disc.
- Once only used as a tool to correct out-of-tune notes, this technology is now used creatively in many pop songs. The characteristic robotic sound is very easy to recognize.
- MP3 technology has made it more convenient to own, distribute and access new music. Illegal downloads of MP3 tracks are costing the recording industry millions of dollars.
- MP3 players are the most popular kind of digital music players. Digital music players store music in digital files (binary code) and then use a DAC (digital-to-analog) converter to turn the digital file composed of 0’s and 1’s into an analog signal that can be played through speakers or headphones. Generally, digital music has better clarity and can be compressed to fit a large amount of music onto digital storage media such as hard disks and memory cards. In addition, digital music players also contain an embedded processor to convert the music files using a codec, the technology that compresses and decompresses the audio signals.
- MP3 stands for MPEG audio layer III, a method for compressing audio files. This standard for audio compression became popular because it is capable of at least 10:1 compression with little noticeable loss of quality. Compression refers to the size of the file. An uncompressed audio file that contains 50 MB worth of data can be compressed using MP3 compression technology to a 5MB file and still retain high sound fidelity.
- The MP3 player is more complicated that it looks. It contains many technologies and features that allow it to perform its basic functions of storing and playing music. One technology vital to MP3 players is solid-state memory. This refers to the hard disk or flash memory card that holds the files in memory. This is opposed to CD players or tape players that only play separate discs and tapes that hold the music. MP3 players also contain programming that allows you to organize and catalog the music into playlists, as well as the ability to easily integrate with your computer to transfer files back and forth.
Unlike earlier forms of music players that required moving parts to read encoded data on a tape or CD, MP3 players use solid-state memory. An MP3 player is no more than a data-storage device with an embedded software application that allows users to transfer MP3 files to the player. MP3 players also include utilities for copying music from the radio, CDs, radio or Web sites and the ability to organize and create custom lists of songs in the order you want to hear them. This list of songs is called a playlist. Lastly, MP3 players contain a power source such as a battery and an audio port for headphones or speakers that allow you to enjoy your music
Music Software Developer
- Music software developers are musicians who produce music, create music-related systems and develop music-related software. Developers of music software combine the skills of a computer programmer with the talents of a musician. Music software developers work specialist jobs in the film, music, multimedia animation, games and television industries.
- Multimedia specialists are music and sound specialists that work with a team to design interactive and cross-over media projects, such as web, game or interactive application development. Often a multimedia specialist works as an independent contractor instead of as a traditional employee.
- Audio engineers design, install and operate broadcasting and sound recording equipment. Often based in recording or broadcast studios, an audio engineer will record, edit, mix and master sound in order to get a polished finished product. Audio engineers train to use a variety of sound equipment including speaker systems, tape decks, microphones, signal processors, mixer consoles and digital audio applications.
- Typically employed by a record label, music publishers proofread and edit music manuscripts and choose which pieces to publish. They must be adept at marketing, promoting and distribution and need to understand how to develop and nurture artists.
- Sound technicians install, operate, repair and maintain sound and audio recording equipment. An entry-level job, sound technicians only need an associate degree to be competitive in the job market. Often employed at recording studios and live performances, sound technicians are responsible for sound checks, proper function of sound equipment and the quality of live and recorded sound.
- Time does not stand still, and neither do people. People are constantly on the go and need to get things done more quickly and accurately. Inventions like the computer, telephone and cellular phones have forever changed the course of human life. They allow people to conduct business and interact with each other without having to travel thousands of miles. More recently, a new type of transistor made out of graphene promises to make electronics smaller and perform at extraordinary speeds. This benefit should thrill not only consumers, but also researchers and businesses seeking ways to increase efficiency and improve productivity.
- When African American inventor Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr, witnessed a collision between a horse-drawn carriage and an automobile back in the early 1900s, it convinced him that something could be done to improve traffic safety. The fruits of his labor yielded the three-position traffic signal, which is used around the world today. In August 2011, the U.S. Department of Transportation will be hosting six Driver Acceptance Clinics across the country to test an emerging technology that allows vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The DOT hopes this technology will help motorists avoid crashes by warning the driver of potentially hazardous situations.
- Emerging technologies can play a critical role when it comes to human health. Wheelchairs help those who have lost mobility in their legs to get around, while MRI devices detect abnormalities and diseases within people’s bodies. Positron Emission Tomography has been identified as a quicker and more accurate method of diagnosing infections in patients who may have cancer or cardiovascular disease. The technology is already making its way into several U.S. hospitals. Great Plains Regional Medical Center installed a PET device in April 2011 as a part of its facility expansion and to ensure cancer patients receive the best possible care. Lantheus Medical Imaging plans to present the positive results of its Phase 2 clinical trial of PET imaging technology at the Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT Conference in Amsterdam in May 2011.
- The scientific reports are in: destructive human habits are polluting the world and adversely affecting the environment. Many emerging technologies are now being geared toward environmental conservation. Inventors are creating eco-friendly light bulbs, beauty products and automobiles. Former U.S. president George W. Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 into law to increase U.S. production of renewable fuels. Professor Frances Arnold is busy designing enhanced enzymes for making biofuels from cellulose. Her ultimate goal is to aid in the reduction of greenhouse gases by making low-emission biofuels a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels.
Music education, in some form, goes back as far as education itself. While sometimes struggling for legitimacy, it nonetheless has had its champions. More recently, as technology has flourished within education, technological applications designed specifically for the teaching of music have been developed. While much of this technology is designed primarily for the classroom there are programs designed for the student to utilize in the home, albeit limited to those students with a home computer and internet access.
The teaching of music in the American educational setting dates back 1838 when Lowell Mason introduced singing classes to Boston grammar schools. Instrumental music appeared in fits and starts over the next fifty years but was never included during the school day; rather, it was relegated to the ranks of extracurricular activities. Around the turn of the century, instrumental music began to see some acceptance into the classroom, though often was taught by those untrained in the area of music education. Moreover, little if any standardization of the instrumentation or music literature existed. (Rhodes, 2007)
Near the conclusion of World War I the quality of school music began to increase. This was due primarily to veterans who, after having been musically trained in the various service branches, began to fill music teaching positions in the schools. Band, however, was still regarded as an extracurricular activity. (Ibid)
In 1907, the Music Supervisors National Conference or MSNC, (now known as the Music Educators National Conference or MENC) was organized to support school music. In 1912 a proposal was made to include, as accredited subjects, a number of music activities including choruses and general music. Band was included – but at a much lower priority. Later, however, at the Cleveland MSNC conference in 1923, Edgar B. Gordon stated,
The high school band is no longer an incidental school enterprise prompted largely by the volunteer services of a high school teacher who happens to have had some band experience, but rather an undertaking which is assigned to a definite place in the school schedule with a daily class period under a trained instructor and with credit allowed for satisfactory work done. (Ibid)
In the same year, and likely due to the increase in both acceptance and importance, Carl Greenleaf (then head of C. G. Conn Ltd.) helped organize the first National Band Contest in Chicago. Later, in 1928, he directed the Conn company to contribute to the founding of the National Music Camp in Interlochen, Michigan and later supported publications designed to support band directors. While these endeavors may have appeared somewhat self-serving in light of his position with Conn, they nonetheless helped establish school band as a significant part of school curriculum. (Banks, 1997)
Despite a gradual, while still limited, acceptance of instrumental music within the school curriculum, budget cuts have often curtailed or even eliminated these programs. Further, with the recent increased emphasis upon “teaching to the test” due to the pressures of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and similar state requirements, support for the inclusion of music in schools has begun to wane. Michelle R. Davis, in “Education Week,” stated “The federal No Child Left Behind Act is prompting many schools to cut back on subjects such as social studies, music, and art to make more time for reading and mathematics…” (Davis, 2006) This is most unfortunate considering that the study of music, especially instrumental music, has proved to be beneficial for all students – even increasing their ability to reason and problem-solve.
Many theorists have contributed to the elevation of music as central to education, or at the very least, demonstrated that limiting the school environment to the “Three R’s” is short-sighted. Howard Gardner postulated his “Multiple Intelligences” theory with the understanding that children do not possess identical propensities for learning. Not only do they have differing capacities for learning but have differing capacities for learning in many areas. These areas, as he explained, are the varying intelligences of which he speaks. Originally describing seven intelligences (of which music is highlighted) he identified two specifically (linguistic and logical-mathematical) as “the ones that have typically been valued in school.” (Gardner, 1999, p41) Obviously, Gardner recognized that the educational system was not reaching all students – only those that could “do school” well. Gardner did not limit his study, of course, to the mere existence of multiple intelligences but demonstrated that a given person can be strong in more than one, enabling those intelligences to interact one with the other. He explained that, “there are other ways in which different intelligences can affect each other…one intelligence can mediate and constrain the others; one intelligence can compensate for another; and one intelligence can catalyze another.” (Gardner 2, 2006, p219) He further extolled the advantages of a musical intelligence by explaining that “…a strong musical intelligence may lead a person engaged in a linguistic task to be more sensitive to the rhythmic properties of language as well as its meaning.” (Ibid, p223)
While many may assume that music and the study thereof is associated primarily to that which is heard, it is also related quite closely to mathematics. Dahlhaus, reflecting Rameau stated that “music had its origins in the Pythagorean proportions; (i.e., music is a mathematics).” (Gargarian, 1996, p137, 138) Regardless of whether or not one agrees with the theory that music is mathematical in toto, there should be little dispute as to the relativity of music notation to mathematics. Indeed, introducing the coordinate, or Cartesian, plane appears to aid the new music student in understanding the horizontal (x), and vertical (y) axes of music notation. Simply stated, the horizontal (x) axis on the music staff relates to duration while the vertical (y) axis relates to pitch. This, of course is a reflection upon Gardner’s aforementioned theory of intelligence interaction.
There is further evidence that instrumental music study is advantageous for the student. In 1995, Gottfried Schlaug, et al, published a study, “Increased Corpus Callosum Size in Musicians” wherein they described an increase in neural fibers across the Corpus Callosum (CC), contributing to its enlargement. They further were able to determine that this increase in fibers/CC size was attributable to instrumental music study. (Schlaug, et al, 1995) Obviously, the supposition can easily be made that, if there is greater cross-talk between the two hemispheres of the brain (specifically, the left – thought to be the analytical, and the right – thought to be the creative) the result would be a person with a greater, more creative, problem-solving ability.
Reflecting upon Gardner’s theories, as well as those of Schlaug, et al, it should surprise no one that others have confirmed links between music and other skills. Bahr and Christiansen in their article “Inter-Domain Transfer Between Mathematical Skill and Musicianship” published findings demonstrating that students who had studied music demonstrated superior performance on mathematical tasks provided there was some structural overlap with music. (Bahr, Christiansen, 2000) This “structural overlap” could be nearly anything, including the relationship of dividing measures or notes into fractions, relating pitch to frequency, or, as aforementioned, establishing the link between the coordinate (Cartesian) plane and the music staff.
With this enhanced problem-solving ability; this increased awareness of mathematical concepts, it would not be a grand leap to assume that music students might perform well with classroom technology. Indeed, music students should be expected to do at least as well as other students with regard to technology. If that is true, then the next step would be to assume that they would do especially well with technology geared especially to them.
Somewhat recently, technologists, recognizing a dearth of technologically-based music applications began to develop computer programs for music education. Music theory websites began to appear, many having been produced by, and linked to, symphonic organizations. Others have been produced by teachers and graduate students either as part of coursework or perhaps for their own use (and anyone wishing to utilize the application). A quick search of the internet reveals that there are quite a number of available technological tools produced and published for the music student. There are interactive music games, in-class keyboard music theory applications, countless online pitch and rhythm websites, and, perhaps most powerful, applications known as “computer assisted instruction” (CAI)” specifically for the music classroom and student. In January 2005, Steven Estrella published the findings of a study demonstrating how music teachers in the U.S. used music technology. Among his findings, he discovered that approximately twenty percent of the survey participants used some form of CAI as part of their instruction. The survey further discovered that the predominant software application was “SmartMusic.” (Estrella, 2005)
SmartMusic is a teacher/student interactive application allowing students to practice, at home, with a synthesized band or orchestral accompaniment. The program can also, with an included microphone, record the student’s efforts and grade them using rhythm and pitch data. The student can immediately see their results and can retry if they wish. The recording and the accompanying grade are then emailed to the student’s teacher/director and automatically entered into the teacher’s database grade book. The program includes accompaniments for around thirty-thousand compositions including band and orchestra method book pieces. (Nagel, 2007) While early reviews of the program were mixed, the company that produces SmartMusic, “MakeMusic,” was apparently responsive to teacher/consumer complaints and suggestions. The program requires that the home version be installed on the students own computer and, in earlier versions, installation, setup, and microphone placement were problematic. In the latest version, SmartMusic 11, many of these issues were addressed either by simplifying the process or with enhanced user guides. (Whaley, 2008)
For the classroom, SmartMusic holds a wealth of applications. The most basic functions of the program include a displayed tuner and metronome. (A music classroom with an interactive whiteboard can make excellent use of SmartMusic’s utilities.) The teacher can then play a pre-recorded version of a piece to be studied and, while the students are playing along, can instantly record them independent of the pre-recording for later playback. The program also includes fingering charts for all instruments so a quick check for the students perhaps needing additional instruction is easily accomplished. Keys and tempi can be changed easily, if necessary, and if a single performer wishes to play with a pre-recorded accompaniment, that accompaniment, “listening” to the performer via a microphone, can follow the performer’s changes in tempo – not unlike what the conductor of a symphony orchestra would do in a live performance.
As important and powerful as SmartMusic is in the classroom, its most powerful application – and the primary purpose for which it was intended – is that of a home practice and assessment tool. There are literally thousands of accompaniments and scales included in the software as well as thousands of music titles. Once the students have subscribed, downloaded (or installed from a CD), and set up the home version of the program, the teacher can design playing assignments which the student then accesses at home on their own computer.
Playing through a microphone to the program’s accompaniment gives an instant visual and aural response; while the recording of the student’s performance is played, their correct notes are displayed in green while mistakes are displayed in red. The student can decide upon and set their own tempo, then practice with the computer-generated accompaniment as many times as they wish prior to recording for a grade. In short, the student is in control while at home. Students having access to broadband internet and a reasonably up-to-date computer can fully realize the potential of the program – as well as their own. (Rudolph, 2006)
But what of those students not fortunate enough to have a computer at home – let alone internet access?
Obviously, the power of SmartMusic would be largely lost on those students without a home computer or internet access. The cost of the home version is small, and some districts have even provided the subscription free of charge for their students. (Nagel, 2007) However, can districts provide a workable computer and internet access or all of its students?
David Thomas stated that schools have made great progress in the introduction of computer and internet access. However, that access, for disadvantaged students, remains at school. (Thomas, 2003) Thomas further quoted then U. S. Secretary of Education, Rod Paige:
We need to address the limited access to technology that many students have outside of school. There is much more we can do. Closing the digital divide will also help close the achievement gap that exists within our schools. (Thomas, 2003)
A 2007 study in New York revealed that between seventy and eighty percent of students have computers at home. (Traber, 2007) One might suggest that the real numbers cross-country are actually much lower.
There are many music students dependant upon school-provided instruments, method books, and even instrument supplies such as reeds and valve oil (usually provided out the teacher’s own pocket). These students are already behind their more affluent counterparts and cannot afford private lessons, let alone a workable computer and internet access. These are the students who could benefit most from a program such SmartMusic. However, as useful and powerful as SmartMusic is, it cannot by itself bridge this “digital divide” that still exists.
Educational technology holds great promise for the student musician but until a method for equitable access is discovered, disproportionate achievement will persist.
Bahr, N. & Christensen C.A. (2000). Inter-Domain Transfer Between Mathematical Skill and Musicianship. In Journal of Structural Learning & Intelligent Systems (Vol. 14(3), 2000, pp. 187 – 197). US: Gordon & Breach Science Publishers
Banks, Margaret Downie (1997). A Brief History of the Conn Company (1874-present). The National Music Museum.
Davis, Michelle R. (2006, April). Study: NCLB Leads to Cuts for Some Subjects. Education Week.
Estrella, Steven (2005). Survey of Music Educators and Music Technology. Shearspire.
Gardner, Howard (1999). Intelligence Reframed, Multiple Intelligences for the Twenty First Century. Basic Books/Perseus Books Group: New York
Gardner, Howard (2006). Multiple Intelligences – New Horizons. Basic Books/Perseus Books Group: New York
Gargarian, Gregory (1996). The Art of Design. In Kafai, Y., & Resnick, M. (Eds.). Constructionism in practice: designing, thinking, and learning in a digital world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Nagel, Dave (2007, August). Tucson USD Gives SmartMusic Subscriptions to Students, THE Journal.
Rhodes, Stephen L. (2007). A History of the Wind Band – The American School Band Movement. Lipscomb University.
Rudolph, Tom (2006, February). The Wide World of SmartMusic. Music Education Technology.
Schlaug, Gottfried; Lutz, Jäncke; Huang, Yanxiong; Staiger, Jochen F., Steinmetz, Helmuth, (1995). Increased Corpus Callosum Size in Musicians. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1047-1055.
Thomas, David (2003). Internet Access Soars in Schools, But “Digital Divide” Still Exists at Home for Minority and Poor Students. U. S. Department of Education.
Traber, Chris (2007, September). Poor Students Struggle In Class. YorkRegion.com News.
Whaley, Roger (2008, September 10). SmartMusic 11! – MakeMusic has released SmartMusic 11!. The Band Ed Tool Shed (Weblog).
- Technology has a huge effect on kids’ cognition — or the way they think — and there are both good and bad effects, suggests Jim Taylor, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. Having access to so much information on the Internet can result in a shorter attention span, and children who are exposed to television during the first few years of their lives may have lowered cognitive development, according to research from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Still, technology is also rewiring kids’ brains to multitask — reviewing and processing information more rapidly. Since the Internet is not likely to go away, that’s not necessarily a bad thing, Taylor suggests. Technology — including video games and other screen-based media — improves kids’ reaction times and visual-spatial abilities.
- The overuse of technology can also have an effect on kids’ long-term health. Since kids are sitting in front of screens instead of doing something physical, the high obesity and child diabetes rates in the U.S. are related to using too much technology, says pediatric occupational therapist Cris Rowan in an article The Huffington Post. One study, looking at TV viewing among Hispanic children, and in particular children with TVs in bedrooms, found that 30 percent of the children were overweight or at risk of being so. A sedentary lifestyle puts kids at risk of a host of medical issues, including ADHD, depression, sleep disorders and learning and developmental delays, Rowan suggests.
Vision and Postural Concerns
- Too much time spent in front of a screen can also have an impact on other parts of children’s physical health; namely vision and posture. Prolonged screen time can lead to blurred vision, headaches, eyestrain and fatigue in children, according to a 2009 study published in the Greek medical journal Hippokratia. In addition, a 2007 study in the Czech Republic found that kids who frequently used computers and avoided sports had much higher instances of poor posture than the kids who did at least some sport activities. Good posture means proper alignment, which means the organs and nervous system are working optimally. Poor posture, on the other hand, compromises the body’s overall health and efficiency, suggests the Kansas Chiropractic Foundation.
Using Technology Beneficially
- If your children are over age 2, introducing technology can actually benefit their development. But be sure the technology has an educational purpose instead of being purely for entertainment. Also, avoid anything that is violent in nature. It’s up to you to decide when to allow your kids to watch shows that are more “entertainment” and less educational, but in general, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no more than two hours of screen time per day for both children and teens. It also encourages other healthy habits, such as reading, sports or playing outside. Reading from a book, as was the norm for kids in generations past, helped them develop a broader vocabulary, be more reflective and develop critical thinking skills. To get a good balance of technology and old-fashioned entertainment, try limiting your kids’ screen time until they have read or played outside for a designated time.
- Old electronics dumped into landfills can leach toxins such as lead, mercury and lithium into the environment. Electronics account for 2 percent to 5 percent of the trash that reaches American landfills every year, according to GreenCitizen, a California-based company that works to reduce electronic waste. An average computer screen contains up to 8 pounds of lead, which in excessive amounts can cause nerve disorders and joint pain in adults. High levels of lead in children has been associated with brain damage and anemia, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Cars harm the environment in a few ways. They run on oil, which sometimes leaks out. Oil spills can lead to water pollution and the destruction of plants and animals. Also, water runoff from oil processing plants to nearby rivers and streams can cause water pollution and harm ecosystems. When they are driven, cars emit toxins such as carbon monoxide and particulates such as soot. Air pollution from cars results in smog and holes in the ozone layer, and it may contribute to rising global temperatures.
- Every time you flip a light switch, you use electricity. Electricity comes from sources such as coal, gas and oil. Burning coal releases particulates into the air. Coal mining also causes pollution. Runoff from the mines can contaminate surrounding watersheds, affecting drinking water quality and the health of ecosystems. Power plants that burn oil also release air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide. Electric plants powered by oil also consume a lot of water. Water removed from lakes and rivers can effect the ecosystem. Natural gas must be extracted from the earth, which can also disrupt ecosystems.
- Household appliances such as laundry machines and dishwashers make lives easier, but they also consume precious resources. Appliances require electricity and fossil fuels to run. Laundry machines and dishwashers use a lot of water, which can harm the ecosystems of streams and lakes, according to the National Geographic’s Green Guide. Refrigerators and freezers contain fluorocarbons that contribute to the ozone layer depletion and global warming. Appliances that end up in landfills can leach hazardous materials into the environment and underlying watersheds.
- Data mining covers a wide range of activities that turn numbers, words and other data into distinguishable patterns. In the hands of a responsible agency or business, data mining can determine a probable next step for a terrorist cell or determine buying patterns within demographic groups. This practice has been assailed in the post 9/11 world as part of a widespread pattern of invasions of privacy carried out by America’s intelligence experts. The practices of the Total Information Awareness Progress in particular were thought to pry into the day-to-day lives of innocent people by IT ethics experts and civil libertarians.
- The social networking craze may allow people around the world to speak with each other but it has also brought up several IT ethics issues. Facebook initiated a program called Beacon in 2007 to turn each user’s personal information into an advertisement, allowing a greater amount of connectivity between the website’s members. Facebook’s developers failed to create an opt-in system that gave willing users the chance to participate of their own accord. Beacon came under fire for pulling information from Facebook profiles and breaking down privacy boundaries common in the real world. Another ethical issue for social networking websites is the amount of security they should use when registering members. Several abductions in recent years have been connected to MySpace, bringing up concerns that social networking sites aren’t doing enough to protect young users.
- Spam is defined broadly as emails with commercial or profane messages that are sent blindly to hundreds and thousands of users. Aside from the content of spam email, the major ethical issues for service providers and individuals alike involve identifying spammers. Email programs through AOL and Yahoo! may identify some spammers who are brazen enough to send out millions of emails but their spam programs rely largely on user feedback. While some users will identify legitimate spammers carrying viruses and pornographic messages, there is the potential for users to identify legitimate companies as spammers.
Intellectual Property and Information Technology
- The merger of intellectual property rights and information technology has been rough going since the 1990s. The advent of Napster, Limewire and other peer-to-peer downloading networks brought the issue of infringing on artistic property to the fore. NBC’s exclusive rights to the 2008 Olympic Games were challenged by bloggers and online pirates who placed footage on YouTube. The ethical issue that arises when dealing with intellectual property in the virtual world is the length to which content producers should pursue permission to reprint images and articles. While lifting entire articles for a term paper is clearly unacceptable, there are questions from ethicists about the practicality of seeking out unknown artists and writers for something as minor as a blog.
Filtering Online Content
- Comcast has come under fire in the past two years for blocking downloads from Bit Torrent. The Internet service provider (ISP) has claimed that “throttling down” downloads via Bit Torrent is a reasonable element of maintaining high-speed service. Religious groups, adult websites and others have banned together in an unusual alliance to fight Comcast’s effort to filter content. The major ethical debate raged between ISP, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and end users is whether Internet service should be content-neutral.
Indiana University/Purdue University – Indianapolis
- The Bachelor of Science degree in Musical Technology at Purdue’s Indianapolis campus requires 130 hours of coursework over the four-year duration of the program. Prospective students must have completed a high school diploma and demonstrate musical experience and expertise by completing an audition. According to Purdue’s website, the program is the “first undergraduate music degree to be offered entirely with music technology throughout the program,” offering students an immersive musical and technical environment.
- Virginia Tech’s campus boasts over 3500 square feet of music technology facilities including recording and production studios and soundproofed media facilities utilizing the most modern software and equipment available. They offer two degree options: 50- and 78-hour curriculums including classes like “Soundtrack and Effects Composition” and “Computer Music & Multimedia Design.”
Community College of Philadelphia
- Students seeking a two-year degree may attend the Community College of Philadelphia, which offers an Associate’s degree in Sound Recording and Music Technology. Prospective students complete a music theory placement test and consultation with the department chair. The program includes 67 credit hours of coursework including classes in music and aural theory as well as digital editing and composition.
Kent State University
- Students at Kent State may choose from two music technology-related Bachelor’s degree programs: Audio Recording and Music Production. Participants in this program complete their coursework at the University’s Stark Campus, where a partnership with nearby Kopperhead recording studio offers access to state-of-the-art facilities. Each major concentration requires 122 credit hours of coursework for graduation.
Integrating Technology Into Curriculum
- Computer education is a part of many schools’ required curricula. Computer and technology classes are one way to ensure students have exposure and gain experience in using technology. Technology and computers can also be integrated in the instructional classroom. When technology is properly integrated in educational curricula, students will learn more than just the core subjects; technology learning and application will take place.
- Technology properly integrated into curriculum needs four components of learning. These four components, as explained on the Edutopia website, are active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Technology, when properly integrated in classroom instruction and curriculum, can be used to address different learning styles and abilities of students, creating a differentiated and more effective learning experience.
Ways to Differentiate
- Using technology to differentiate student learning will provide an enjoyable and educational experience for both the student and the teacher. Verbal-linguistic learning-style students will benefit when given tasks such as note taking, reading for information, listening, researching and writing using the technology available. The logical-mathematical student will benefit by tasks such as gathering data, solving problems, predicting, classifying and sequencing. Providing opportunities to improve their particular learning styles will help students to understand why they can perform some tasks more easily than others.
Enhancing Lessons and Lectures
- Technology can be used to enhance lectures and transform dull lessons into attention-grabbing and motivating learning experiences. Color, animated graphics and sound can be used to capture and maintain student attention. Computers and technology can be used for interacting and participating in the lecture and lesson.
A Positive Learning Environment
- While it is challenging to create a perfect learning environment for every child, the use of technology can assist teachers in creating a more positive and motivating environment for students to learn and excel in. Technology in the classroom will provide the students with a well-rounded education and help better prepare students for a competitive job market.
- Have solid credentials. This means both knowledge and formal education. A degree in computer science will be helpful, as well as degrees in related fields of computer technology. Know what systems and software are in common use today, as well as some of the lesser known equivalents. Being able to articulate the range of your knowledge to prospective customers will help to build confidence plus also make it possible to appeal to a wider range of clients.
- Obtain a business license. This is usually not difficult to do. In most jurisdictions, the business license for starting up a service related business such as IT support requires filling out a few forms and paying a fee. Having the business license will provide you with a degree of legitimacy in the local business community and may open some doors as well.
- Set up an office. Even though much of your day will involve site visits to clients to run diagnostics on servers and related components and troubleshooting minor problems, you still need a permanent location with a phone, a desk, and a couple of chairs. The existence of the office, however humble, tells potential clients you are permanent and ill be around for the long haul.
- Acquire your own testing equipment and hardware. This will include portable devices you can use on site, as well as equipment that you keep at the office and use when it is necessary to bring a monitor, hard drive, or server into the office for more detailed work. Also, make sure you have the proper tools to open casings and work with motherboards and other internal components without constantly having to run out to buy something.
- Establish your basic fees. Many IT support businesses offer one to three packages of service for a monthly fee. The packages will specify what your normal and standard services will be each month, as they relate to maintenance, repair, consultations, and other IT related functions. Offering more than one package will make it possible to earn clients with varying ranges of support needs.
- Network in the community. Proactively ask existing customers for recommendations. Join the local chamber of commerce and show up at gatherings. Leave business cards posted on bulletin boards and other places where business cards are routinely collected. Find a few other small business owners in the area who are willing to pass out your cards and contact information in exchange for you returning the favor.
Emerging Technologies in Energy & Environment
The Energy & Environment Crisis is an Opportunity in Disguise
Globalization is expected to double the level of industrialization in about 10 years, producing a commensurate increase in the demand for energy, pollution levels, global warming, and other aspects of the energy and environment crisis. Our forecasts show that today’s growth of green business should take off in three-five years, and governments are likely to take serious steps to curb global warming about the same time. Alternative energy sources – wind turbines, biofuels, nuclear plants, and solar cells – are growing 30-40% per year, roughly the same rate as Moore’s Law. The entire market for green technologies is expected to reach about $10 trillion in time, larger than autos, health care, and defense. In short, the present energy and environment mess actually offers a great opportunity in disguise.
Emerging Technologies in Information Technology
Information Technology Changes Everything
Computer power continues to double every two years, a second generation of optical, biological, and quantum computers is poised to take over in a decade, and artificial intelligence is automating routine mental tasks and raising the level of knowledge everywhere. These profound advances are moving life online into a virtual world that is ever-present and intelligent. The Web is the same age when color TV became the dominant force of the 20th century. Within a decade, people are likely to speak to high-fidelity images on large wall monitors while working, shopping, learning, and conducting almost all other social functions. You might buy something by simply talking with an onscreen robot that greets you by name, knows all the merchandise and displays it on demand, answers questions, and has infinite patience – the perfect salesperson. This suggests a tipping point is imminent as IT matures to transform economics, markets, lifestyles, and social institutions. The threats to existing businesses are likely to be vast – but so will the opportunities.
Emerging Technologies in E-Commerce
E-Commerce is Uniting the Globe
Most e-commerce today operates at about 10 -15% adoption levels, but our forecasts suggest that online shopping, publishing, education, entertainment, and other services are likely to reach the critical 30% adoption level soon where new businesses usually take off. And the huge populations of China, India, Brazil, and other developing countries are moving in droves to PCs, the Internet, and smart phones. We anticipate that four-five billion people will soon inhabit a digital world that is smarter, faster, and interactive, creating online markets of several trillion dollars. Instead of a liability, the poor actually represent a huge potential market for inexpensive goods. C.K. Prahalad, a leading business professor, said “The world’s four billion poor should be considered the biggest source of growth left.”
Emerging Technologies in Manufacturing
Manufacturing Goes High-Tech
The smoking factories of the Industrial Age are yielding to intelligent manufacturing systems operating worldwide to produce goods cheaply, quickly, and made to order. Research in materials and nanotechnology is making it possible to create almost any type of product, and mass customization can deliver an endless stream of sophisticated goods designed for individuals. The Japanese and Koreans have produced intelligent robots that can walk, climb stairs, and speak with humans, and they are finding work as office receptionists, security guards, and helpers in offices and homes. Driven by the pursuit of cheap labor and new markets, these changes are likely to bring industrialization to poor nations over the next few decades. However this economic growth is also producing mounting demand for scarce resources, increasing loads on the environment, and clashes between diverse cultures. An industrialized world will be a boon to business – but making it sustainable is an enormous challenge that will test us for decades.
Emerging Technologies in Medicine
Medical Advances Confer Mastery Over Life
A variety of breakthroughs is likely to provide mastery over the process of life itself. Artificial organs are being developed to replace almost all bodily functions, including parts of the brain, and stem cell research is increasingly able to repair organs. Electronic medical records, online doctor’s visits, computerized diagnostics, and other forms of telemedicine should curtail rising costs and improve quality of care. Nanotech is being used to develop tiny devices that are intelligent enough to seek out cancer cells, small enough to enter cells and destroy them, and are safely removed by the kidneys. The U.S. National Cancer Institute thinks cancer deaths could be eliminated by 2015. Just as the Industrial Age mastered most aspects of the physical world, these advances are now making it possible to master the biological world. Yes, it sounds too good to be true, but so did the notion that men could fly, much less travel to the moon.
Emerging Technologies in Transportation
Transportation Is Moving Faster and Farther
Our forecasts show that a new wave of green autos powered by hybrid, electric, and fuel cell engines should enter the mainstream about 2013 – 2018, and we are likely to see “intelligent cars” that may even drive themselves. So there are growth opportunities for automakers if Detroit can get its act together. It may seem that information systems could replace travel, but information forms a virtual world that parallels the physical world. People will always want to visit each other, handle the merchandise, and hammer out tough decisions together. The need for physical contact is inexhaustible, and studies show that growing virtual contact makes face-to-face relations more necessary.
Emerging Technologies in Space
Space is Going Private
CEO Richard Branson is scheduling the first suborbital flight of tourists aboard Virgin Galactic for 2010, and competitors are rushing their own plans, including visits to the Moon and space hotels. Just a few years ago the idea seemed laughable, but it now looks like space tourism will soon launch the realistic possibility of opening the final frontier to private ventures. Burt Rutan, who leads Virgin Galactic’s effort, said: “If we reach our goal of flying 100,000 people in the first ten to twelve years, you are going to see unusual creativity. As the thrill of experiencing space becomes available to almost anyone, it is easy to imagine the floodgates of entrepreneurial creativity opening to permit a rush of new ventures – roughly the way the Wild West was tamed by pioneers a century ago. Our experts estimate that people will commonly take orbital flights around the Earth as safely as airline flights in about 5 years, signaling a watershed from government control to free enterprise.
Technology has taken unimaginable strides over the past couple of decades, affording people all around the world possibility, flexibility and, above all things, convenience in their everyday communication and overall lifestyle. It is ever-changing. Whether you’re sending a love letter, making a purchase, running a business, researching a paper, financing a house, getting in touch with your old college roommate or booking a flight to Fiji, it all comes down to one simple thing: the click of a mouse.
- It’s possible in today’s world to reconnect with high school and college friends in a matter of minutes. Before the Internet came to be, it was nearly impossible to stay in touch. Unless you ran into them at your 10-year reunion, you had no idea where they were. Nowadays, in this growing culture of social networking, it’s nearly impossible not to know what they’ve had for dinner, not to mention where life has taken them. No matter how many miles stand between you, social networking has allowed both old and new friends to keep in touch from moment to moment.Social networking allows both old and new friends to keep in touch.
Opportunities to Work From Home
- The flexibility of working from home in your pajamas or from the beach in your bathing suit may be one of the most attractive advantages modern technology offers for some. Not only does it save you a long commute to the office, a ton of gas money and the inevitable stress of hitting rush hour traffic, but it buys you more time in the day to spend on more important matters like family and friends.Working from home buys you more time in your day.
Convenience in Education
- Getting an education is as simple these days as turning on your laptop and taking classes online. Although it’s not your traditional classroom, the kind housed with a roomful of students seated in wooden desks and a professor lecturing in the front of the room, it is nonetheless an effective alternative to a good education. Even though you may be curled up on your couch in the middle of the night with a hot mug of tea and your cat on your lap, you are, in fact, in the modern learning environment, earning your degree from home. Even high school classes are being offered online for students seeking summer school and degree programs.Earn an online degree from the comfort of your couch.
- Mixers use technology to create music. These specialists take individual musical tracks and combine them using mixing boards or computer software to create a full-bodied song. Individuals who work in this position often work in close contact with the artists. They are responsible for the sound quality and overall appeal of the music they work with, as it is often their mixing that separates a nice song from a potential hit.
Music Video Editor
- Music video editors combine the music with visual components to create an engaging and attractive multimedia product. Individuals who edit music videos use their information technology skills to manipulate audio and video files and combine them to create a musical product. Although music video editors do not often have complete creative control of the finished product, they do have some power in shaping the overall look of the video creation.
- The way in which music makers are presented to the public has changed greatly over the years. Today much marketing is done in the digital setting, with artists and record labels setting up online advertisements to inform and entice listeners. Digital marketers work to create these online advertisements and inform web users of artists and their music. These information technology professionals create ads for musical artists and work to either place or sell the advertisements to ensure they reach web users.
Artist Website Designer
- Website designers often build a digital persona for a musical artist, as many potential listeners turn to the web when gathering information about an artist they may potentially follow. A well-organized and attractive website presents the artist as a professional and may entice would-be listeners to pick up or download the artist’s album.
The pervasive influence of information technology (IT) in the computing age cannot be overstated. Since the 90s, IT has brought about a revolution at the workplace. The recent development and fast-paced adoption of Internet communication and Web-based technologies and applications has enhanced the potential of IT. IT and computer systems deployed strategically can impact the operational aspects and productivity parameters of a business.
- IT and attendant technologies and tools can be used to automate key business operations, functions and activities of a business. Businesses can invest in desktop computers, workstations, laptops, minicomputers, notebook computers and high-end servers for a host of organizational tasks and functions. Market-available software, computing applications, networking and other IT productivity tools installed in computers and computer systems can help professionals, workers and staff in a business to streamline work processes and execute tasks and functions faster in order to achieve organizational-defined goals and targets.
Leverage Communication Capabilities
- The advent of the Internet and Web-based technologies has force-multiplied the capabilities of computers and IT systems. Computers connected across an intranet-based environment or Web-enabled network can help workers and executives to communicate with one another and engage in business-critical work pursuits. Businesses can leverage Internet access technologies, new-generation tools such as wikis and social media networks to facilitate communication with vendors, business partners, customers, government regulators and other stakeholders.
Foster Greater Collaboration
- Internet communication and telecommunication technologies and IT software systems can enable workers to work, interact and share information across locations and geographical boundaries. With the help of IT, businesses with multilocation offices and manufacturing facilities in different geographical zones can help staff members and employees to collaborate and work simultaneously on projects. Use of proprietary collaborative software and workgroup support systems can foster greater collaboration, streamline workflow management and encourage proactive human interactions.
- Businesses generate vast reserves of data and information on a daily basis. Investing and deploying IT software systems such as enterprise resource planning solutions, management information systems, data-processing data centers and related information management technologies can help businesses to manage, leverage and optimize terabytes of data. Information processing, classification and management is the key to operational efficiency and decision making for workers, professionals and top executives in an organization.
Impact on Bottom Line
- Investment in large-scale IT systems, networks and technologies calls for budgeting and allocation of resources. Businesses need to account for long-term planning, evaluation and deployment of relevant strategic-fit IT solutions to address business growth, manpower needs and ambitious expansion plans. Used strategically, IT systems can boost employee productivity and impact the bottom line of businesses.
The essential requirements for comfortable and healthy indoor environments are adequate ventilation and humidity control. In the humidity rich regions of the world to solve the above problems the key solution is the air conditioners based on liquid desiccants technology.
Liquid desiccants are solutions that have a high affinity for water vapor. This property is the key to creating cooling systems that dehumidify air without over-cooling. Liquid desiccants used in the systems commonly are very strong solutions of the ionic salts lithium chloride and calcium chloride.
These ionic salts have the attractive characteristic and have essential zero vapor pressure. Because of such reason, vapors of the desiccant will not appear in the air supplied by the LDAC (liquid decissant air conditioner). This technology can enhance heat transfer by a mechanism that is the inverse of vaporative cooling. When air flows over a surface wetted with water, evaporation from the film of water will lower the temperature of the water-air interface toward the wet-bulb temperature of the air. This wet-bulb temperature is a function of the air’s initial temperature and humidity.
A line of constant enthalpy that passes through the air’s state point intersects the saturation line on a psychrometric chart at approximately the wet-bulb temperature.
A liquid-desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) has three major components: (1) the conditioner, which dries and cools the process air, (2) the regenerator, which heats the weak desiccant to drive off the water that was absorbed in the conditioner, and (3) the interchange heat exchanger, which uses the hot, concentrated desiccant that leaves the regenerator to preheat the cool, weak desiccant that leaves the conditioner. The conditioner is a water-to-air heat exchanger that is constructed from plastic plates. Cooling water flows within the plates and films of liquid desiccant flow down the outer surfaces of the plates. When air flows over a surface that is wetted with a desiccant, the desiccant can either absorb or desorbs water, depending on whether the desiccant’s equilibrium relative humidity is above or below the air’s relative humidity.
- Identify whether you wish to study at the graduate level or the baccalaureate level. Take the TOEFL, SAT I and SAT II Subject Tests or ACT for undergraduate study. Take the GRE or GMAT or other tests required by the university information technology program that interests you most. Apply for admission to the university. Indicate whether you will be a visiting student or a degree candidate. Visiting students are students enrolled in another college who wish to take courses towards a degree in information technology at the school of application that will be credited towards a degree at their home college. Indicate that you are an international student and will require a student visa.
- Upon admission, ensure that the university completes a SEVIS form indicating that you will be enrolled in their IT program. Take the SEVIS form along with the letter of acceptance to a U.S. consulate near you to obtain an F-1 visa. The F-1 is required for you to enter into the United States. Visit the website for the U.S. consulate or embassy near you. Click the “Visas” tab. Select “Non-immigrant Visas.” Locate directions for making an appointment (Note: each consulate has different appointment procedures). Set an appointment where applicable or drop in if they accept walk-ins. Complete form DS-160 by entering your address, passport number, date of birth, length and purpose of your trip. A consular officer will take your passport from you and return it to you along with your SEVIS form once he’s stamped the F-1 Visa in your passport. Travel to the United States in time to start your program.
- Take courses required for the degree, including program design, program logic, telecommunication fundamentals and theory, algorithms and design. Sign up for additional courses in data structures, database management systems and computer architecture. Speak with your dean or program adviser about choosing electives in a specific area of concentration. Master’s degree courses will be more specific than undergraduate level courses and may require working on research projects with professors.
- Read the syllabus handed by out by the professor at the beginning of each course. Purchase the books and materials needed for every class. Study required reading and complete all assignments by the deadline listed in the syllabus. Ask questions of the professor in class or after class. Active participation in classroom discussion is part of the grade in many courses.
Computer technology is used to serve and connect people in the modern world. Desktops, laptops and mobile devices network the world together and perform multiple operations at once; however, this industry includes more than these machines. Individuals, communities, government and organizations rely on computer technology to produce or innovate the majority of things in their lives, such as food, services, entertainment, care, communication, education and transportation.
- Farmers use innovations in computer technology to determine the best time to plant, fertilize, harvest and sell crops. The Internet offers weather and stock market reports in real-time, and its global network of potential buyers is more expansive than local merchants. New machinery, such as cow milking machines, uses basic computer programming routines to automate the care of animals and crops. Harvesting vehicles give drivers more information when gathering crops, and farmers can detect if plants are contaminated with fungal toxins. As farmers become aware of new farming technology, they can adapt their future farming methods.Milking machines use computer technology.
- Computer technology includes any machines that receive commands and perform calculations or services accordingly. Many types of operations, such as billing, record keeping, transactions and planning, take place through commercially available or customized machines. Most modern devices use microchips and processing units to perform their basic functions. ATM machines, gas station pumps, GPS units and barcode scanners may be common in everyday life; however, each relies on circuit boards and digital data to meet the needs of consumers.
People gain more access to personalized services through the Internet. You could order a pizza or groceries online, and email your doctor’s office or visit WebMD.com after receiving indigestion from something you eat. Look for online coupons that print out as discounts or free merchandise coupons for local stores and restaurants. Scan a product’s barcode into your smartphone, and read reviews or price-match the item before purchasing it.Cashiers use barcode scanners to ring up items and maintain inventory.
- Major motion pictures and television programs use some form of visual, audio and animation effects in their production. Video games employ graphics produced by a computer, and each game plugs into a computer-based home entertainment system. Players can play by themselves or with others over the Internet. Some game systems can sell downloadable programs and stream movies online.
Use mobile phone applications to make reservations at restaurants or hair salons to reduce wait time. Purchase movie tickets online to avoid standing in a crowded line, or play a game on your phone while waiting for the movie to start. Store your music library on a single device instead of carrying around individual CDs.Use computer technology to purchase movie tickets online.
- A negative side effect of computer technology is the way it can affect your health. The field of ergonomics studies how a person’s sitting position when using electronic equipment can affect the user mentally and physically. People who sit incorrectly or who stare at a computer screen all day may experience headaches. The position of a computer keyboard can create or prevent carpal tunnel syndrome.
Other advances in computer technology have created more options for health care. Medical websites, such as WebMD.com, provide comprehensive overviews of what a person may be experiencing physically through their symptoms. Doctors offices can send patients a reminder email for an appointment, or fax a prescription to a pharmacy. Organic grocery stores or bulk sales of vitamin supplements can offer alternative options to traditional medicine.Physicians rely on computer technology to obtain current information on patients.
- People correspond with friends, family, acquaintances and business associates through social media, email, texting and instant messaging. Use computers to create holiday newsletters, and print off labels instead of hand writing each envelope. Stay in touch from work at home, attend video conferences instead of having to travel and send a mass email through MailChimp.com. Avoid the expense of a high school reunion by forming connections to old classmates through Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and other social networking sites. Access news, weather forecasts, stock prices and more through websites and blogs that regularly compile top stories.Social media websites enable people to connect online in real-time.
- A computer is a useful tool for advancing educationally in traditional and non-traditional ways. Colleges and universities offer online courses for adults who are looking to obtain a degree without quitting their job. Younger students rely on computers to research and access information, or to submit their work to their teacher. Professional or volunteer tutors can be found online to gain help on a variety of topics.
Computer technology makes it easier to learn more about other cultures. Use the Internet to take a virtual trip to another country by exploring ideas, art, music, products and other examples of culture. Have a video phone call on Skype with a missionary and order local ethnic food to eat while you interact.Schools with computer labs teach age-appropriate lessons on technology.
- The basic functions of modern vehicles are controlled through computer chips and circuitry. Engine microprocessors calculate the proper mix of air and fuel for combustion, and a circuit board regulates the timing of the spark plugs. Certain safety features or luxuries, such as airbags, cruise control, anti-lock brakes and automatic transmission, all rely on computer technology to function.
GPS systems passively receive satellite signals that inform drivers of their location or how to find a specific destination. The device calculates the information and creates a display that adapts to movement, and it gives step-by-step directions on how to navigate the most-direct path available. Drivers can travel more confidently knowing that they can typically get where they need to go if service is available.Some GPS systems come pre-installed in newer vehicles.