Majoring in Music Engineering

Music engineering includes sound recording, editing, mixing, producing and distributing live and previously recorded music. Undergraduate music engineering majors may focus on music engineering and production, music technology or music sound recording. Because their emphasis is music, these programs will treat you as a music major. Courses required include the music core courses in theory and history.

Undergraduate Degrees Offered

  • Your undergraduate music engineering program may offer a Bachelor of Music, a Bachelor of Arts in Music or a Bachelor of Science in Music; the Bachelor of Music program expects an audition and continued instrument studies, while the Bachelor of Science stresses the science and technology of sound recording and the Bachelor of Arts emphasizes interdisciplinarity. The University of Miami’s Frost School of Music offers both bachelor’s and master’s programs in Music Engineering Technology, emphasizing sound recording and traditional music studies. Some liberal arts colleges, like the music department at Skidmore College, encourage students to declare self-designed majors leading to a Bachelor of Arts in Music Production and Engineering.

Coursework

  • Coursework beyond the music core will include an introduction to music engineering and production, music technology and composition. The composition courses may include electroacoustic music, computer music or both. Some programs require a course in music business, whereas others will require an introductory course in the music industry. At the Berklee College of Music, some of the learning outcomes for their program include learning how to multitrack record, edit and mix in addition to learning how to develop a business plan and make both technical and musically aesthetic decisions. All music engineering programs will expect studio work.

Classes

  • Classes in music engineering typically explore state-of-the-art sound recording technology as their focus. During studio time, you will learn to record, edit, mix and compose music for individual and group projects. Though classes mostly focus on digital equipment, some classes allow you to explore analog and dated equipment for the purpose of teaching recording, historical and aesthetic concepts. You may also be required to take some more generalized audio engineering courses, which will give you the opportunity to do music engineering for film, television and radio projects.

Studio Work and Experience

  • The most important aspect of your undergraduate experience as a music engineering major is your studio work and experience, both in classes and as an intern. Indiana University’s Jacobs School of Music offers a Bachelor of Science in Recording Arts, which treats your entire four years as a sound recording studio internship. In the studio, you will learn how to maintain and manage equipment and studio responsibilities. As an intern, you will have the opportunity to work with people in the music industry and will gain perspective about the professional role of music engineer.

How Has Digital Technology Affected Music?

The development of digital technology has drastically changed most types of pop music. Digital technology has made it easier and cheaper for people to record, to perform and to listen to music.

Instruments

  • In the ’80s, synthesizers characterized pop music. Developments in digital technology meant that synthesizers were cheaper to manufacture and they became affordable for more musicians.The mass manufcature of synthesizers revolutionized the sound of dance and pop music.

Sound

  • As digital technology became more widespread, music makers were able to use tools that were previously only available in analog form, such as mixers and effects.

Recording

  • Improvements in home production devices and access to digital recording created a home recording revolution. People could record their music without paying to use a professional studio.

Compact Disc

  • The invention of the compact disc improved the quality of sound in recorded music. The recording industry benefited hugely as people replaced entire vinyl collections with compact disc.

Autotune

  • Once only used as a tool to correct out-of-tune notes, this technology is now used creatively in many pop songs. The characteristic robotic sound is very easy to recognize.

MP3

  • MP3 technology has made it more convenient to own, distribute and access new music. Illegal downloads of MP3 tracks are costing the recording industry millions of dollars.

How Does an MP3 Player Work?

Digital Music

  • MP3 players are the most popular kind of digital music players. Digital music players store music in digital files (binary code) and then use a DAC (digital-to-analog) converter to turn the digital file composed of 0’s and 1’s into an analog signal that can be played through speakers or headphones. Generally, digital music has better clarity and can be compressed to fit a large amount of music onto digital storage media such as hard disks and memory cards. In addition, digital music players also contain an embedded processor to convert the music files using a codec, the technology that compresses and decompresses the audio signals.

Compressing Files

  • MP3 stands for MPEG audio layer III, a method for compressing audio files. This standard for audio compression became popular because it is capable of at least 10:1 compression with little noticeable loss of quality. Compression refers to the size of the file. An uncompressed audio file that contains 50 MB worth of data can be compressed using MP3 compression technology to a 5MB file and still retain high sound fidelity.

Playback

  • The MP3 player is more complicated that it looks. It contains many technologies and features that allow it to perform its basic functions of storing and playing music. One technology vital to MP3 players is solid-state memory. This refers to the hard disk or flash memory card that holds the files in memory. This is opposed to CD players or tape players that only play separate discs and tapes that hold the music. MP3 players also contain programming that allows you to organize and catalog the music into playlists, as well as the ability to easily integrate with your computer to transfer files back and forth.

    Unlike earlier forms of music players that required moving parts to read encoded data on a tape or CD, MP3 players use solid-state memory. An MP3 player is no more than a data-storage device with an embedded software application that allows users to transfer MP3 files to the player. MP3 players also include utilities for copying music from the radio, CDs, radio or Web sites and the ability to organize and create custom lists of songs in the order you want to hear them. This list of songs is called a playlist. Lastly, MP3 players contain a power source such as a battery and an audio port for headphones or speakers that allow you to enjoy your music

Music Technology Degree Jobs

Music technologists compose and arrange music using modern technology. Graduate programs in music technology allow musically or technically talented students to pursue master’s and doctoral degrees. With job opportunities in music, film, video recording arts, television and media post-production, music technology is a career with strong growth potential.

Music Software Developer

  • Music software developers are musicians who produce music, create music-related systems and develop music-related software. Developers of music software combine the skills of a computer programmer with the talents of a musician. Music software developers work specialist jobs in the film, music, multimedia animation, games and television industries.

Multimedia Specialist

  • Multimedia specialists are music and sound specialists that work with a team to design interactive and cross-over media projects, such as web, game or interactive application development. Often a multimedia specialist works as an independent contractor instead of as a traditional employee.

Audio Engineer

  • Audio engineers design, install and operate broadcasting and sound recording equipment. Often based in recording or broadcast studios, an audio engineer will record, edit, mix and master sound in order to get a polished finished product. Audio engineers train to use a variety of sound equipment including speaker systems, tape decks, microphones, signal processors, mixer consoles and digital audio applications.

Music Publisher

  • Typically employed by a record label, music publishers proofread and edit music manuscripts and choose which pieces to publish. They must be adept at marketing, promoting and distribution and need to understand how to develop and nurture artists.

Sound Technician

  • Sound technicians install, operate, repair and maintain sound and audio recording equipment. An entry-level job, sound technicians only need an associate degree to be competitive in the job market. Often employed at recording studios and live performances, sound technicians are responsible for sound checks, proper function of sound equipment and the quality of live and recorded sound.

The Advantages of Emerging Technology

Emerging technology can improve people’s lives in many ways. Technological advancements can help people complete tasks more efficiently, keep them safer and healthier and also protect the environment. Not all technologies make it past the testing and development stage. However, those that do sometimes end up revolutionizing people’s lives and, by extension, the world.

Efficiency

  • Time does not stand still, and neither do people. People are constantly on the go and need to get things done more quickly and accurately. Inventions like the computer, telephone and cellular phones have forever changed the course of human life. They allow people to conduct business and interact with each other without having to travel thousands of miles. More recently, a new type of transistor made out of graphene promises to make electronics smaller and perform at extraordinary speeds. This benefit should thrill not only consumers, but also researchers and businesses seeking ways to increase efficiency and improve productivity.

Safety

  • When African American inventor Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr, witnessed a collision between a horse-drawn carriage and an automobile back in the early 1900s, it convinced him that something could be done to improve traffic safety. The fruits of his labor yielded the three-position traffic signal, which is used around the world today. In August 2011, the U.S. Department of Transportation will be hosting six Driver Acceptance Clinics across the country to test an emerging technology that allows vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The DOT hopes this technology will help motorists avoid crashes by warning the driver of potentially hazardous situations.

Health

  • Emerging technologies can play a critical role when it comes to human health. Wheelchairs help those who have lost mobility in their legs to get around, while MRI devices detect abnormalities and diseases within people’s bodies. Positron Emission Tomography has been identified as a quicker and more accurate method of diagnosing infections in patients who may have cancer or cardiovascular disease. The technology is already making its way into several U.S. hospitals. Great Plains Regional Medical Center installed a PET device in April 2011 as a part of its facility expansion and to ensure cancer patients receive the best possible care. Lantheus Medical Imaging plans to present the positive results of its Phase 2 clinical trial of PET imaging technology at the Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac CT Conference in Amsterdam in May 2011.

Environmental Conservation

  • The scientific reports are in: destructive human habits are polluting the world and adversely affecting the environment. Many emerging technologies are now being geared toward environmental conservation. Inventors are creating eco-friendly light bulbs, beauty products and automobiles. Former U.S. president George W. Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 into law to increase U.S. production of renewable fuels. Professor Frances Arnold is busy designing enhanced enzymes for making biofuels from cellulose. Her ultimate goal is to aid in the reduction of greenhouse gases by making low-emission biofuels a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels.

The best XBOX ONE exclusives of 2016

In 2016, we are expecting several grandiose battles. Batman will defy Superman, Captain America will have a fight with Iron Man, and Sony and Microsoft once again come face to face in a ruthless struggle for the soul of gamers. Most recently, at the PlayStation Experience 2015exhibition, the Japanese have announced a lot of new games for PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita and PlayStation VR. In this regard, we have decided to recall the most high-profile exclusives that Microsoft will release on their Xbox One video console next year.

ReCore

At E3 of 2015, an epic trailer of the game called ReCore caused serious stir among the owners of Xbox One. This game can be taken as a response of Microsoft to the Horizon: Zero Dawn, which is going to be released on PlayStation 4 next year. In both cases, we find ourselves in a harsh post-apocalyptic world dominated by robots that look like animals. In addition, the main characters in both games are pretty and brave girls. In ReCore the girl’s name is Jewel. She will have to survive, fight with robots and explore the deserted world. In addition, she will have a mechanical dog-transformer by her side.

Gears of War 4

In its style and atmosphere, the fourth part of Gears of War will be markedly different from the third game… According to the developers, the storyline of Gears of War 4 will be much more mysterious, ambiguous and complex. In this sense, it is more reminiscent of the original Gears of War. The game is planned to be released in winter next year.

Crackdown 3

In the open world of the shooter exclusive called Crack down 3, gamers will be able to destroy and trash everything they want to. To do this, the developers have combined the Unreal Engine 4 with a unique technology called Microsoft Azure. This mad hybrid made it possible to create a tremendous multiplayer, which by its dynamics slightly resembles the cartoon Battlefield. Crackdown Action 3 takes place in a futuristic city where there is chaos and lawlessness. We get to play for the agent endowed with superpowers, who has to destroy a criminal empire.

Scalebound

In Scalebound the action takes place in a fantasy world named Draconis. You wander around it, encounter enemies, fight with them, and then you give orders to Tuban and it will burn everything and everyone. Tuban is a huge dog from Fallout 4. However, if you encounter only several enemies, you will be able to take care of them on your own. To do this, you will have a bow at your disposal, which shoots explosive arrows and swords. The most interesting thing happens when you run into some huge creature since the only way to win it is cooperate with your dragon.

So we hope that you find our list of the most remarkable games of 2016 for Xbox One interesting and you will enjoy playing these games a lot! In addition, you can visit Kijiji.ca to buy used video game while waiting for these ones. Have fun!

Technology in and for the Instrumental Music Classroom

Music education, in some form, goes back as far as education itself. While sometimes struggling for legitimacy, it nonetheless has had its champions. More recently, as technology has flourished within education, technological applications designed specifically for the teaching of music have been developed. While much of this technology is designed primarily for the classroom there are programs designed for the student to utilize in the home, albeit limited to those students with a home computer and internet access.

The teaching of music in the American educational setting dates back 1838 when Lowell Mason introduced singing classes to Boston grammar schools. Instrumental music appeared in fits and starts over the next fifty years but was never included during the school day; rather, it was relegated to the ranks of extracurricular activities. Around the turn of the century, instrumental music began to see some acceptance into the classroom, though often was taught by those untrained in the area of music education. Moreover, little if any standardization of the instrumentation or music literature existed. (Rhodes, 2007)

Near the conclusion of World War I the quality of school music began to increase. This was due primarily to veterans who, after having been musically trained in the various service branches, began to fill music teaching positions in the schools. Band, however, was still regarded as an extracurricular activity. (Ibid)

In 1907, the Music Supervisors National Conference or MSNC, (now known as the Music Educators National Conference or MENC) was organized to support school music. In 1912 a proposal was made to include, as accredited subjects, a number of music activities including choruses and general music. Band was included – but at a much lower priority. Later, however, at the Cleveland MSNC conference in 1923, Edgar B. Gordon stated,

The high school band is no longer an incidental school enterprise prompted largely by the volunteer services of a high school teacher who happens to have had some band experience, but rather an undertaking which is assigned to a definite place in the school schedule with a daily class period under a trained instructor and with credit allowed for satisfactory work done. (Ibid)

In the same year, and likely due to the increase in both acceptance and importance, Carl Greenleaf (then head of C. G. Conn Ltd.) helped organize the first National Band Contest in Chicago. Later, in 1928, he directed the Conn company to contribute to the founding of the National Music Camp in Interlochen, Michigan and later supported publications designed to support band directors. While these endeavors may have appeared somewhat self-serving in light of his position with Conn, they nonetheless helped establish school band as a significant part of school curriculum. (Banks, 1997)

Despite a gradual, while still limited, acceptance of instrumental music within the school curriculum, budget cuts have often curtailed or even eliminated these programs. Further, with the recent increased emphasis upon “teaching to the test” due to the pressures of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and similar state requirements, support for the inclusion of music in schools has begun to wane. Michelle R. Davis, in “Education Week,” stated “The federal No Child Left Behind Act is prompting many schools to cut back on subjects such as social studies, music, and art to make more time for reading and mathematics…” (Davis, 2006) This is most unfortunate considering that the study of music, especially instrumental music, has proved to be beneficial for all students – even increasing their ability to reason and problem-solve.

Many theorists have contributed to the elevation of music as central to education, or at the very least, demonstrated that limiting the school environment to the “Three R’s” is short-sighted. Howard Gardner postulated his “Multiple Intelligences” theory with the understanding that children do not possess identical propensities for learning. Not only do they have differing capacities for learning but have differing capacities for learning in many areas. These areas, as he explained, are the varying intelligences of which he speaks. Originally describing seven intelligences (of which music is highlighted) he identified two specifically (linguistic and logical-mathematical) as “the ones that have typically been valued in school.” (Gardner, 1999, p41) Obviously, Gardner recognized that the educational system was not reaching all students – only those that could “do school” well. Gardner did not limit his study, of course, to the mere existence of multiple intelligences but demonstrated that a given person can be strong in more than one, enabling those intelligences to interact one with the other. He explained that, “there are other ways in which different intelligences can affect each other…one intelligence can mediate and constrain the others; one intelligence can compensate for another; and one intelligence can catalyze another.” (Gardner 2, 2006, p219) He further extolled the advantages of a musical intelligence by explaining that “…a strong musical intelligence may lead a person engaged in a linguistic task to be more sensitive to the rhythmic properties of language as well as its meaning.” (Ibid, p223)

While many may assume that music and the study thereof is associated primarily to that which is heard, it is also related quite closely to mathematics. Dahlhaus, reflecting Rameau stated that “music had its origins in the Pythagorean proportions; (i.e., music is a mathematics).” (Gargarian, 1996, p137, 138) Regardless of whether or not one agrees with the theory that music is mathematical in toto, there should be little dispute as to the relativity of music notation to mathematics. Indeed, introducing the coordinate, or Cartesian, plane appears to aid the new music student in understanding the horizontal (x), and vertical (y) axes of music notation. Simply stated, the horizontal (x) axis on the music staff relates to duration while the vertical (y) axis relates to pitch. This, of course is a reflection upon Gardner’s aforementioned theory of intelligence interaction.

There is further evidence that instrumental music study is advantageous for the student. In 1995, Gottfried Schlaug, et al, published a study, “Increased Corpus Callosum Size in Musicians” wherein they described an increase in neural fibers across the Corpus Callosum (CC), contributing to its enlargement. They further were able to determine that this increase in fibers/CC size was attributable to instrumental music study. (Schlaug, et al, 1995) Obviously, the supposition can easily be made that, if there is greater cross-talk between the two hemispheres of the brain (specifically, the left – thought to be the analytical, and the right – thought to be the creative) the result would be a person with a greater, more creative, problem-solving ability.

Reflecting upon Gardner’s theories, as well as those of Schlaug, et al, it should surprise no one that others have confirmed links between music and other skills. Bahr and Christiansen in their article “Inter-Domain Transfer Between Mathematical Skill and Musicianship” published findings demonstrating that students who had studied music demonstrated superior performance on mathematical tasks provided there was some structural overlap with music. (Bahr, Christiansen, 2000) This “structural overlap” could be nearly anything, including the relationship of dividing measures or notes into fractions, relating pitch to frequency, or, as aforementioned, establishing the link between the coordinate (Cartesian) plane and the music staff.

With this enhanced problem-solving ability; this increased awareness of mathematical concepts, it would not be a grand leap to assume that music students might perform well with classroom technology. Indeed, music students should be expected to do at least as well as other students with regard to technology. If that is true, then the next step would be to assume that they would do especially well with technology geared especially to them.

Somewhat recently, technologists, recognizing a dearth of technologically-based music applications began to develop computer programs for music education. Music theory websites began to appear, many having been produced by, and linked to, symphonic organizations. Others have been produced by teachers and graduate students either as part of coursework or perhaps for their own use (and anyone wishing to utilize the application). A quick search of the internet reveals that there are quite a number of available technological tools produced and published for the music student. There are interactive music games, in-class keyboard music theory applications, countless online pitch and rhythm websites, and, perhaps most powerful, applications known as “computer assisted instruction” (CAI)” specifically for the music classroom and student. In January 2005, Steven Estrella published the findings of a study demonstrating how music teachers in the U.S. used music technology. Among his findings, he discovered that approximately twenty percent of the survey participants used some form of CAI as part of their instruction. The survey further discovered that the predominant software application was “SmartMusic.” (Estrella, 2005)

SmartMusic is a teacher/student interactive application allowing students to practice, at home, with a synthesized band or orchestral accompaniment. The program can also, with an included microphone, record the student’s efforts and grade them using rhythm and pitch data. The student can immediately see their results and can retry if they wish. The recording and the accompanying grade are then emailed to the student’s teacher/director and automatically entered into the teacher’s database grade book. The program includes accompaniments for around thirty-thousand compositions including band and orchestra method book pieces. (Nagel, 2007) While early reviews of the program were mixed, the company that produces SmartMusic, “MakeMusic,” was apparently responsive to teacher/consumer complaints and suggestions. The program requires that the home version be installed on the students own computer and, in earlier versions, installation, setup, and microphone placement were problematic. In the latest version, SmartMusic 11, many of these issues were addressed either by simplifying the process or with enhanced user guides. (Whaley, 2008)

For the classroom, SmartMusic holds a wealth of applications. The most basic functions of the program include a displayed tuner and metronome. (A music classroom with an interactive whiteboard can make excellent use of SmartMusic’s utilities.) The teacher can then play a pre-recorded version of a piece to be studied and, while the students are playing along, can instantly record them independent of the pre-recording for later playback. The program also includes fingering charts for all instruments so a quick check for the students perhaps needing additional instruction is easily accomplished. Keys and tempi can be changed easily, if necessary, and if a single performer wishes to play with a pre-recorded accompaniment, that accompaniment, “listening” to the performer via a microphone, can follow the performer’s changes in tempo – not unlike what the conductor of a symphony orchestra would do in a live performance.

As important and powerful as SmartMusic is in the classroom, its most powerful application – and the primary purpose for which it was intended – is that of a home practice and assessment tool. There are literally thousands of accompaniments and scales included in the software as well as thousands of music titles. Once the students have subscribed, downloaded (or installed from a CD), and set up the home version of the program, the teacher can design playing assignments which the student then accesses at home on their own computer.

Playing through a microphone to the program’s accompaniment gives an instant visual and aural response; while the recording of the student’s performance is played, their correct notes are displayed in green while mistakes are displayed in red. The student can decide upon and set their own tempo, then practice with the computer-generated accompaniment as many times as they wish prior to recording for a grade. In short, the student is in control while at home. Students having access to broadband internet and a reasonably up-to-date computer can fully realize the potential of the program – as well as their own. (Rudolph, 2006)

But what of those students not fortunate enough to have a computer at home – let alone internet access?

Obviously, the power of SmartMusic would be largely lost on those students without a home computer or internet access. The cost of the home version is small, and some districts have even provided the subscription free of charge for their students. (Nagel, 2007) However, can districts provide a workable computer and internet access or all of its students?

David Thomas stated that schools have made great progress in the introduction of computer and internet access. However, that access, for disadvantaged students, remains at school. (Thomas, 2003) Thomas further quoted then U. S. Secretary of Education, Rod Paige:

We need to address the limited access to technology that many students have outside of school. There is much more we can do. Closing the digital divide will also help close the achievement gap that exists within our schools. (Thomas, 2003)

A 2007 study in New York revealed that between seventy and eighty percent of students have computers at home. (Traber, 2007) One might suggest that the real numbers cross-country are actually much lower.

There are many music students dependant upon school-provided instruments, method books, and even instrument supplies such as reeds and valve oil (usually provided out the teacher’s own pocket). These students are already behind their more affluent counterparts and cannot afford private lessons, let alone a workable computer and internet access. These are the students who could benefit most from a program such SmartMusic. However, as useful and powerful as SmartMusic is, it cannot by itself bridge this “digital divide” that still exists.

Educational technology holds great promise for the student musician but until a method for equitable access is discovered, disproportionate achievement will persist.

References

Bahr, N. & Christensen C.A. (2000). Inter-Domain Transfer Between Mathematical Skill and Musicianship. In Journal of Structural Learning & Intelligent Systems (Vol. 14(3), 2000, pp. 187 – 197). US: Gordon & Breach Science Publishers

Banks, Margaret Downie (1997). A Brief History of the Conn Company (1874-present). The National Music Museum.

Davis, Michelle R. (2006, April). Study: NCLB Leads to Cuts for Some Subjects. Education Week.

Estrella, Steven (2005). Survey of Music Educators and Music Technology. Shearspire.

Gardner, Howard (1999). Intelligence Reframed, Multiple Intelligences for the Twenty First Century. Basic Books/Perseus Books Group: New York

Gardner, Howard (2006). Multiple Intelligences – New Horizons. Basic Books/Perseus Books Group: New York

Gargarian, Gregory (1996). The Art of Design. In Kafai, Y., & Resnick, M. (Eds.). Constructionism in practice: designing, thinking, and learning in a digital world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Nagel, Dave (2007, August). Tucson USD Gives SmartMusic Subscriptions to Students, THE Journal.

Rhodes, Stephen L. (2007). A History of the Wind Band – The American School Band Movement. Lipscomb University.

Rudolph, Tom (2006, February). The Wide World of SmartMusic. Music Education Technology.

Schlaug, Gottfried; Lutz, Jäncke; Huang, Yanxiong; Staiger, Jochen F., Steinmetz, Helmuth, (1995). Increased Corpus Callosum Size in Musicians. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1047-1055.

Thomas, David (2003). Internet Access Soars in Schools, But “Digital Divide” Still Exists at Home for Minority and Poor Students. U. S. Department of Education.

Traber, Chris (2007, September). Poor Students Struggle In Class. YorkRegion.com News.

Whaley, Roger (2008, September 10). SmartMusic 11! – MakeMusic has released SmartMusic 11!. The Band Ed Tool Shed (Weblog).

The Effects of Modern Technology on Kids

Smart phones, tablets, video games and other technologies have made communication easier in the modern age — but it’s no secret that they’re also changing the way people’s brains are wired. If you’re concerned about the effect modern technology is having on your kids, you probably should be; though not all of those effects are necessarily bad.

Cognitive Effects

  • Technology has a huge effect on kids’ cognition — or the way they think — and there are both good and bad effects, suggests Jim Taylor, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. Having access to so much information on the Internet can result in a shorter attention span, and children who are exposed to television during the first few years of their lives may have lowered cognitive development, according to research from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Still, technology is also rewiring kids’ brains to multitask — reviewing and processing information more rapidly. Since the Internet is not likely to go away, that’s not necessarily a bad thing, Taylor suggests. Technology — including video games and other screen-based media — improves kids’ reaction times and visual-spatial abilities.

Health Effects

  • The overuse of technology can also have an effect on kids’ long-term health. Since kids are sitting in front of screens instead of doing something physical, the high obesity and child diabetes rates in the U.S. are related to using too much technology, says pediatric occupational therapist Cris Rowan in an article The Huffington Post. One study, looking at TV viewing among Hispanic children, and in particular children with TVs in bedrooms, found that 30 percent of the children were overweight or at risk of being so. A sedentary lifestyle puts kids at risk of a host of medical issues, including ADHD, depression, sleep disorders and learning and developmental delays, Rowan suggests.

Vision and Postural Concerns

  • Too much time spent in front of a screen can also have an impact on other parts of children’s physical health; namely vision and posture. Prolonged screen time can lead to blurred vision, headaches, eyestrain and fatigue in children, according to a 2009 study published in the Greek medical journal Hippokratia. In addition, a 2007 study in the Czech Republic found that kids who frequently used computers and avoided sports had much higher instances of poor posture than the kids who did at least some sport activities. Good posture means proper alignment, which means the organs and nervous system are working optimally. Poor posture, on the other hand, compromises the body’s overall health and efficiency, suggests the Kansas Chiropractic Foundation.

Using Technology Beneficially

  • If your children are over age 2, introducing technology can actually benefit their development. But be sure the technology has an educational purpose instead of being purely for entertainment. Also, avoid anything that is violent in nature. It’s up to you to decide when to allow your kids to watch shows that are more “entertainment” and less educational, but in general, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no more than two hours of screen time per day for both children and teens. It also encourages other healthy habits, such as reading, sports or playing outside. Reading from a book, as was the norm for kids in generations past, helped them develop a broader vocabulary, be more reflective and develop critical thinking skills. To get a good balance of technology and old-fashioned entertainment, try limiting your kids’ screen time until they have read or played outside for a designated time.

Bad Effects of Modern Technology in the Environment

Modern technology has changed people’s lives. Most people now carry cell phones so they can call friends and family wherever they go. Cars and trucks have allowed people greater freedom to travel around the country, and home appliances have decreased the amount of time we spend completing household chores. While modern technology has given people more convenience, it also has harmed the environment.

Electronics

  • Old electronics dumped into landfills can leach toxins such as lead, mercury and lithium into the environment. Electronics account for 2 percent to 5 percent of the trash that reaches American landfills every year, according to GreenCitizen, a California-based company that works to reduce electronic waste. An average computer screen contains up to 8 pounds of lead, which in excessive amounts can cause nerve disorders and joint pain in adults. High levels of lead in children has been associated with brain damage and anemia, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Cars

  • Cars harm the environment in a few ways. They run on oil, which sometimes leaks out. Oil spills can lead to water pollution and the destruction of plants and animals. Also, water runoff from oil processing plants to nearby rivers and streams can cause water pollution and harm ecosystems. When they are driven, cars emit toxins such as carbon monoxide and particulates such as soot. Air pollution from cars results in smog and holes in the ozone layer, and it may contribute to rising global temperatures.

Power

  • Every time you flip a light switch, you use electricity. Electricity comes from sources such as coal, gas and oil. Burning coal releases particulates into the air. Coal mining also causes pollution. Runoff from the mines can contaminate surrounding watersheds, affecting drinking water quality and the health of ecosystems. Power plants that burn oil also release air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide. Electric plants powered by oil also consume a lot of water. Water removed from lakes and rivers can effect the ecosystem. Natural gas must be extracted from the earth, which can also disrupt ecosystems. In order to reduce your reliance on this damaging kind of energy, you should invest in more energy-efficient technologies. For example, you could invest in what the folks at Summit Point roofing have dubbed an “extensive green roof”, which is a roof covered in a layer of low lying plants. These kinds of roofing systems drastically reduce the amount of energy your home requires and thus reduce your reliance on fossil fuels for energy production. So, even if we haven’t found a way to produce energy as efficiently as fossil fuels, we can still reduce our reliance on them.

Appliances

  • Household appliances such as laundry machines and dishwashers make lives easier, but they also consume precious resources. Appliances require electricity and fossil fuels to run. Laundry machines and dishwashers use a lot of water, which can harm the ecosystems of streams and lakes, according to the National Geographic’s Green Guide. Refrigerators and freezers contain fluorocarbons that contribute to the ozone layer depletion and global warming. Appliances that end up in landfills can leach hazardous materials into the environment and underlying watersheds.

About Ethics in Information Technology

Every advancement in information technology is accompanied by at least one ethical quandary. From Facebook to email updates, computer users are unaware of the fine balance between ethics and profit struck by providers. Software developers, businesses and individuals must think about the rights and wrongs of using information technology every day. The fundamental issues underlying the world of information technology are the end user’s expectation of privacy and the provider’s ethical duty to use applications or email responsibly.

Data Mining

  • Data mining covers a wide range of activities that turn numbers, words and other data into distinguishable patterns. In the hands of a responsible agency or business, data mining can determine a probable next step for a terrorist cell or determine buying patterns within demographic groups. This practice has been assailed in the post 9/11 world as part of a widespread pattern of invasions of privacy carried out by America’s intelligence experts. The practices of the Total Information Awareness Progress in particular were thought to pry into the day-to-day lives of innocent people by IT ethics experts and civil libertarians.

Social Networking

  • The social networking craze may allow people around the world to speak with each other but it has also brought up several IT ethics issues. Facebook initiated a program called Beacon in 2007 to turn each user’s personal information into an advertisement, allowing a greater amount of connectivity between the website’s members. Facebook’s developers failed to create an opt-in system that gave willing users the chance to participate of their own accord. Beacon came under fire for pulling information from Facebook profiles and breaking down privacy boundaries common in the real world. Another ethical issue for social networking websites is the amount of security they should use when registering members. Several abductions in recent years have been connected to MySpace, bringing up concerns that social networking sites aren’t doing enough to protect young users.

E-Mail Spam

  • Spam is defined broadly as emails with commercial or profane messages that are sent blindly to hundreds and thousands of users. Aside from the content of spam email, the major ethical issues for service providers and individuals alike involve identifying spammers. Email programs through AOL and Yahoo! may identify some spammers who are brazen enough to send out millions of emails but their spam programs rely largely on user feedback. While some users will identify legitimate spammers carrying viruses and pornographic messages, there is the potential for users to identify legitimate companies as spammers.

Intellectual Property and Information Technology

  • The merger of intellectual property rights and information technology has been rough going since the 1990s. The advent of Napster, Limewire and other peer-to-peer downloading networks brought the issue of infringing on artistic property to the fore. NBC’s exclusive rights to the 2008 Olympic Games were challenged by bloggers and online pirates who placed footage on YouTube. The ethical issue that arises when dealing with intellectual property in the virtual world is the length to which content producers should pursue permission to reprint images and articles. While lifting entire articles for a term paper is clearly unacceptable, there are questions from ethicists about the practicality of seeking out unknown artists and writers for something as minor as a blog.

Filtering Online Content

  • Comcast has come under fire in the past two years for blocking downloads from Bit Torrent. The Internet service provider (ISP) has claimed that “throttling down” downloads via Bit Torrent is a reasonable element of maintaining high-speed service. Religious groups, adult websites and others have banned together in an unusual alliance to fight Comcast’s effort to filter content. The major ethical debate raged between ISP, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and end users is whether Internet service should be content-neutral.

Schools That Offer a Music Technology Degree in the US

A music technology degree prepares you to work in recording studios or in the television and radio industries. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2010 predicted an average eight percent growth of the need for technicians in these fields over the following ten years, with entry-level positions in metropolitan areas proving the most competitive.

Indiana University/Purdue University – Indianapolis

  • The Bachelor of Science degree in Musical Technology at Purdue’s Indianapolis campus requires 130 hours of coursework over the four-year duration of the program. Prospective students must have completed a high school diploma and demonstrate musical experience and expertise by completing an audition. According to Purdue’s website, the program is the “first undergraduate music degree to be offered entirely with music technology throughout the program,” offering students an immersive musical and technical environment.

Virginia Tech

  • Virginia Tech’s campus boasts over 3500 square feet of music technology facilities including recording and production studios and soundproofed media facilities utilizing the most modern software and equipment available. They offer two degree options: 50- and 78-hour curriculums including classes like “Soundtrack and Effects Composition” and “Computer Music & Multimedia Design.”

Community College of Philadelphia

  • Students seeking a two-year degree may attend the Community College of Philadelphia, which offers an Associate’s degree in Sound Recording and Music Technology. Prospective students complete a music theory placement test and consultation with the department chair. The program includes 67 credit hours of coursework including classes in music and aural theory as well as digital editing and composition.

Kent State University

  • Students at Kent State may choose from two music technology-related Bachelor’s degree programs: Audio Recording and Music Production. Participants in this program complete their coursework at the University’s Stark Campus, where a partnership with nearby Kopperhead recording studio offers access to state-of-the-art facilities. Each major concentration requires 122 credit hours of coursework for graduation.

Importance of Computer Technology in Education

Because of the huge role computers and technology play in the lives of people, it is vital to include computers and technology in student education. Preparing students to enter the world of technology after high school is not an option. In her article “Learning in the Digital Age,” published in January 2006, Carolyn Pool states, “The digital revolution is as near as a cell phone and as far away as the spacecraft Voyager. Students are the beneficiaries of both the knowledge explosion and the communications bonanza. For them, “texting” and “pixing” are as commonplace as note-passing in other eras. What’s on the horizon for learning with digital technologies?” This statement highlights the need and importance of computer technology in education.

Integrating Technology Into Curriculum

  • Computer education is a part of many schools’ required curricula. Computer and technology classes are one way to ensure students have exposure and gain experience in using technology. Technology and computers can also be integrated in the instructional classroom. When technology is properly integrated in educational curricula, students will learn more than just the core subjects; technology learning and application will take place.

Proper Integration

  • Technology properly integrated into curriculum needs four components of learning. These four components, as explained on the Edutopia website, are active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Technology, when properly integrated in classroom instruction and curriculum, can be used to address different learning styles and abilities of students, creating a differentiated and more effective learning experience.

Ways to Differentiate

  • Using technology to differentiate student learning will provide an enjoyable and educational experience for both the student and the teacher. Verbal-linguistic learning-style students will benefit when given tasks such as note taking, reading for information, listening, researching and writing using the technology available. The logical-mathematical student will benefit by tasks such as gathering data, solving problems, predicting, classifying and sequencing. Providing opportunities to improve their particular learning styles will help students to understand why they can perform some tasks more easily than others.

Enhancing Lessons and Lectures

  • Technology can be used to enhance lectures and transform dull lessons into attention-grabbing and motivating learning experiences. Color, animated graphics and sound can be used to capture and maintain student attention. Computers and technology can be used for interacting and participating in the lecture and lesson.

A Positive Learning Environment

  • While it is challenging to create a perfect learning environment for every child, the use of technology can assist teachers in creating a more positive and motivating environment for students to learn and excel in. Technology in the classroom will provide the students with a well-rounded education and help better prepare students for a competitive job market.

How to Start an Information Technology Business

As small businesses continue to grow, many companies are choosing to forego the expense of employing a full time Information Technology department and instead choosing to utilize an information technology business to keep essential systems up and running. If you have an IT background and have dreamed of owning your own business, there are a few simple steps that will have you well on your way.

Instructions

  1. Have solid credentials. This means both knowledge and formal education. A degree in computer science will be helpful, as well as degrees in related fields of computer technology. Know what systems and software are in common use today, as well as some of the lesser known equivalents. Being able to articulate the range of your knowledge to prospective customers will help to build confidence plus also make it possible to appeal to a wider range of clients.
  2. Obtain a business license. This is usually not difficult to do. In most jurisdictions, the business license for starting up a service related business such as IT support requires filling out a few forms and paying a fee. Having the business license will provide you with a degree of legitimacy in the local business community and may open some doors as well.
  3. Set up an office. Even though much of your day will involve site visits to clients to run diagnostics on servers and related components and troubleshooting minor problems, you still need a permanent location with a phone, a desk, and a couple of chairs. The existence of the office, however humble, tells potential clients you are permanent and ill be around for the long haul.
  4. Acquire your own testing equipment and hardware. This will include portable devices you can use on site, as well as equipment that you keep at the office and use when it is necessary to bring a monitor, hard drive, or server into the office for more detailed work. Also, make sure you have the proper tools to open casings and work with motherboards and other internal components without constantly having to run out to buy something.
  5. Establish your basic fees. Many IT support businesses offer one to three packages of service for a monthly fee. The packages will specify what your normal and standard services will be each month, as they relate to maintenance, repair, consultations, and other IT related functions. Offering more than one package will make it possible to earn clients with varying ranges of support needs.
  6. Network in the community. Proactively ask existing customers for recommendations. Join the local chamber of commerce and show up at gatherings. Leave business cards posted on bulletin boards and other places where business cards are routinely collected. Find a few other small business owners in the area who are willing to pass out your cards and contact information in exchange for you returning the favor.

Emerging Technologies Summary for 2010

Emerging Technologies in Energy & Environment

The Energy & Environment Crisis is an Opportunity in Disguise

Globalization is expected to double the level of industrialization in about 10 years, producing a commensurate increase in the demand for energy, pollution levels, global warming, and other aspects of the energy and environment crisis. Our forecasts show that today’s growth of green business should take off in three-five years, and governments are likely to take serious steps to curb global warming about the same time. Alternative energy sources –  wind turbines, biofuels, nuclear plants, and solar cells – are growing 30-40% per year, roughly the same rate as Moore’s Law. The entire market for green technologies is expected to reach about $10 trillion in time, larger than autos, health care, and defense. In short, the present energy and environment mess actually offers a great opportunity in disguise.

Emerging Technologies in Information Technology

Information Technology Changes Everything   

Computer power continues to double every two years, a second generation of optical, biological, and quantum computers is poised to take over in a decade, and artificial intelligence is automating routine mental tasks and raising the level of knowledge everywhere. These profound advances are moving life online into a virtual world that is ever-present and intelligent.  The Web is the same age when color TV became the dominant force of the 20th century.  Within a decade, people are likely to speak to high-fidelity images on large wall monitors while working, shopping, learning, and conducting almost all other social functions.  You might buy something by simply talking with an onscreen robot that greets you by name, knows all the merchandise and displays it on demand, answers questions, and has infinite patience – the perfect salesperson.  This suggests a tipping point is imminent as IT matures to transform economics, markets, lifestyles, and social institutions.  The threats to existing businesses are likely to be vast – but so will the opportunities.

Emerging Technologies in E-Commerce

E-Commerce is Uniting the Globe  

Most e-commerce today operates at about 10 -15% adoption levels, but our forecasts suggest that online shopping, publishing, education, entertainment, and other services are likely to reach the critical 30% adoption level soon where new businesses usually take off. And the huge populations of China, India, Brazil, and other developing countries are moving in droves to PCs, the Internet, and smart phones. We anticipate that four-five billion people will soon inhabit a digital world that is smarter, faster, and interactive, creating online markets of several trillion dollars. Instead of a liability, the poor actually represent a huge potential market for inexpensive goods. C.K. Prahalad, a leading business professor, said “The world’s four billion poor should be considered the biggest source of growth left.”

Emerging Technologies in Manufacturing

Manufacturing Goes High-Tech
The smoking factories of the Industrial Age are yielding to intelligent manufacturing systems operating worldwide to produce goods cheaply, quickly, and made to order. Research in materials and nanotechnology is making it possible to create almost any type of product, and mass customization can deliver an endless stream of sophisticated goods designed for individuals. The Japanese and Koreans have produced intelligent robots that can walk, climb stairs, and speak with humans, and they are finding work as office receptionists, security guards, and helpers in offices and homes.  Driven by the pursuit of cheap labor and new markets,  these changes are likely to bring industrialization to poor nations over the next few decades. However this economic growth is also producing mounting demand for scarce resources, increasing loads on the environment, and clashes between diverse cultures. An industrialized world will be a boon to business – but making it sustainable is an enormous challenge that will test us for decades.  

Emerging Technologies in Medicine

Medical Advances Confer Mastery Over Life
A  variety of breakthroughs is likely to provide mastery over the process of life itself. Artificial organs are being developed to replace almost all bodily functions, including parts of the brain, and stem cell research is increasingly able to repair organs. Electronic medical records, online doctor’s visits, computerized diagnostics, and other forms of telemedicine should curtail rising costs and improve quality of care. Nanotech is being used to develop tiny devices that are intelligent enough to seek out cancer cells, small enough to enter cells and destroy them, and are safely removed by the kidneys. The U.S. National Cancer Institute thinks cancer deaths could be eliminated by 2015. Just as the Industrial Age mastered most aspects of the physical world, these advances are now making it possible to master the biological world.  Yes, it sounds too good to be true, but so did the notion that men could fly, much less travel to the moon.

Emerging Technologies in Transportation

Transportation Is Moving Faster and Farther 
Our forecasts show that a new wave of green autos powered by hybrid, electric, and fuel cell engines should enter the mainstream about 2013 – 2018, and we are likely to see “intelligent cars” that may even drive themselves. So there are growth opportunities for automakers if Detroit can get its act together. It may seem that information systems could replace travel, but information forms a virtual world that parallels the physical world. People will always want to visit each other, handle the merchandise, and hammer out tough decisions together. The need for physical contact is inexhaustible, and studies show that growing virtual contact makes face-to-face relations more necessary.

Emerging Technologies in Space

Space is Going Private
CEO Richard Branson is scheduling the first suborbital flight of tourists aboard Virgin Galactic for 2010, and competitors are rushing their own plans, including visits to the Moon and space hotels. Just a few years ago the idea seemed laughable, but it now looks like space tourism will soon launch the realistic possibility of opening the final frontier to private ventures. Burt Rutan, who leads Virgin Galactic’s effort, said: “If we reach our goal of flying 100,000 people in the first ten to twelve years, you are going to see unusual creativity. As the thrill of experiencing space becomes available to almost anyone, it is easy to imagine the floodgates of entrepreneurial creativity opening to permit a rush of new ventures – roughly the way the Wild West was tamed by pioneers a century ago. Our experts estimate that people will commonly take orbital flights around the Earth as safely as airline flights in about 5 years, signaling a watershed from government control to free enterprise.

The Advantages of Modern Technologies

Technology has taken unimaginable strides over the past couple of decades, affording people all around the world possibility, flexibility and, above all things, convenience in their everyday communication and overall lifestyle. It is ever-changing. Whether you’re sending a love letter, making a purchase, running a business, researching a paper, financing a house, getting in touch with your old college roommate or booking a flight to Fiji, it all comes down to one simple thing: the click of a mouse.

Social Networking

  • It’s possible in today’s world to reconnect with high school and college friends in a matter of minutes. Before the Internet came to be, it was nearly impossible to stay in touch. Unless you ran into them at your 10-year reunion, you had no idea where they were. Nowadays, in this growing culture of social networking, it’s nearly impossible not to know what they’ve had for dinner, not to mention where life has taken them. No matter how many miles stand between you, social networking has allowed both old and new friends to keep in touch from moment to moment.Social networking allows both old and new friends to keep in touch.

Opportunities to Work From Home

  • The flexibility of working from home in your pajamas or from the beach in your bathing suit may be one of the most attractive advantages modern technology offers for some. Not only does it save you a long commute to the office, a ton of gas money and the inevitable stress of hitting rush hour traffic, but it buys you more time in the day to spend on more important matters like family and friends.Working from home buys you more time in your day.

Convenience in Education

  • Getting an education is as simple these days as turning on your laptop and taking classes online. Although it’s not your traditional classroom, the kind housed with a roomful of students seated in wooden desks and a professor lecturing in the front of the room, it is nonetheless an effective alternative to a good education. Even though you may be curled up on your couch in the middle of the night with a hot mug of tea and your cat on your lap, you are, in fact, in the modern learning environment, earning your degree from home. Even high school classes are being offered online for students seeking summer school and degree programs.Earn an online degree from the comfort of your couch.

Information Technology Jobs in the Music Industry

The ways in which music is produced and marketed have changed significantly as technology has advanced, and many music careers now involve information technology. The broad category of information technology consists of any job in which technology is used to create, store or transfer information, reports “Entrepreneur” magazine. Tech-savvy individuals who wish to work in the music industry can pursue one of many music-related information technology paths.

Mixer

  • Mixers use technology to create music. These specialists take individual musical tracks and combine them using mixing boards or computer software to create a full-bodied song. Individuals who work in this position often work in close contact with the artists. They are responsible for the sound quality and overall appeal of the music they work with, as it is often their mixing that separates a nice song from a potential hit.

Music Video Editor

  • Music video editors combine the music with visual components to create an engaging and attractive multimedia product. Individuals who edit music videos use their information technology skills to manipulate audio and video files and combine them to create a musical product. Although music video editors do not often have complete creative control of the finished product, they do have some power in shaping the overall look of the video creation.

Digital Marketer

  • The way in which music makers are presented to the public has changed greatly over the years. Today much marketing is done in the digital setting, with artists and record labels setting up online advertisements to inform and entice listeners. Digital marketers work to create these online advertisements and inform web users of artists and their music. These information technology professionals create ads for musical artists and work to either place or sell the advertisements to ensure they reach web users.

Artist Website Designer

  • Website designers often build a digital persona for a musical artist, as many potential listeners turn to the web when gathering information about an artist they may potentially follow. A well-organized and attractive website presents the artist as a professional and may entice would-be listeners to pick up or download the artist’s album.

How Can Information Technology Change a Business?

The pervasive influence of information technology (IT) in the computing age cannot be overstated. Since the 90s, IT has brought about a revolution at the workplace. The recent development and fast-paced adoption of Internet communication and Web-based technologies and applications has enhanced the potential of IT. IT and computer systems deployed strategically can impact the operational aspects and productivity parameters of a business.

Enhance Productivity

  • IT and attendant technologies and tools can be used to automate key business operations, functions and activities of a business. Businesses can invest in desktop computers, workstations, laptops, minicomputers, notebook computers and high-end servers for a host of organizational tasks and functions. Market-available software, computing applications, networking and other IT productivity tools installed in computers and computer systems can help professionals, workers and staff in a business to streamline work processes and execute tasks and functions faster in order to achieve organizational-defined goals and targets.

Leverage Communication Capabilities

  • The advent of the Internet and Web-based technologies has force-multiplied the capabilities of computers and IT systems. Computers connected across an intranet-based environment or Web-enabled network can help workers and executives to communicate with one another and engage in business-critical work pursuits. Businesses can leverage Internet access technologies, new-generation tools such as wikis and social media networks to facilitate communication with vendors, business partners, customers, government regulators and other stakeholders.

Foster Greater Collaboration

  • Internet communication and telecommunication technologies and IT software systems can enable workers to work, interact and share information across locations and geographical boundaries. With the help of IT, businesses with multilocation offices and manufacturing facilities in different geographical zones can help staff members and employees to collaborate and work simultaneously on projects. Use of proprietary collaborative software and workgroup support systems can foster greater collaboration, streamline workflow management and encourage proactive human interactions.

Information Management

  • Businesses generate vast reserves of data and information on a daily basis. Investing and deploying IT software systems such as enterprise resource planning solutions, management information systems, data-processing data centers and related information management technologies can help businesses to manage, leverage and optimize terabytes of data. Information processing, classification and management is the key to operational efficiency and decision making for workers, professionals and top executives in an organization.

Impact on Bottom Line

  • Investment in large-scale IT systems, networks and technologies calls for budgeting and allocation of resources. Businesses need to account for long-term planning, evaluation and deployment of relevant strategic-fit IT solutions to address business growth, manpower needs and ambitious expansion plans. Used strategically, IT systems can boost employee productivity and impact the bottom line of businesses.

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner – An Emerging Technology

The essential requirements for comfortable and healthy indoor environments are adequate ventilation and humidity control. In the humidity rich regions of the world to solve the above problems the key solution is the air conditioners based on liquid desiccants technology.

Liquid desiccants are solutions that have a high affinity for water vapor. This property is the key to creating cooling systems that dehumidify air without over-cooling.  Liquid desiccants used in the systems commonly are very strong solutions of the ionic salts lithium chloride and calcium chloride.

These ionic salts have the attractive characteristic and have essential zero vapor pressure. Because of such reason, vapors of the desiccant will not appear in the air supplied by the LDAC (liquid decissant air conditioner). This technology can enhance heat transfer by a mechanism that is the inverse of vaporative cooling. When air flows over a surface wetted with water, evaporation from the film of water will lower the temperature of the water-air interface toward the wet-bulb temperature of the air. This wet-bulb temperature is a function of the air’s initial temperature and humidity.

A line of constant enthalpy that passes through the air’s state point intersects the saturation line on a psychrometric chart at approximately the wet-bulb temperature.

A liquid-desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) has three major components: (1) the conditioner, which dries and cools the process air, (2) the regenerator, which heats the weak desiccant to drive off the water that was absorbed in the conditioner, and (3) the interchange heat exchanger, which uses the hot, concentrated desiccant that leaves the regenerator to preheat the cool, weak desiccant that leaves the conditioner. The conditioner is a water-to-air heat exchanger that is constructed from plastic plates. Cooling water flows within the plates and films of liquid desiccant flow down the outer surfaces of the plates. When air flows over a surface that is wetted with a desiccant, the desiccant can either absorb or desorbs water, depending on whether the desiccant’s equilibrium relative humidity is above or below the air’s relative humidity.

How to Study Information Technology in the USA

The United States is a leader in information technology education. Graduates of US-based IT programs go on to develop new technologies for major IT companies or work in critical capacities in small and large companies. International men and women wishing to study information technology in the United States will need to be admitted to a US-based program. The university or college will help you obtain a student visa to enter the United States for study.

Instructions

  1. Identify whether you wish to study at the graduate level or the baccalaureate level. Take the TOEFL, SAT I and SAT II Subject Tests or ACT for undergraduate study. Take the GRE or GMAT or other tests required by the university information technology program that interests you most. Apply for admission to the university. Indicate whether you will be a visiting student or a degree candidate. Visiting students are students enrolled in another college who wish to take courses towards a degree in information technology at the school of application that will be credited towards a degree at their home college. Indicate that you are an international student and will require a student visa.
  2. Upon admission, ensure that the university completes a SEVIS form indicating that you will be enrolled in their IT program. Take the SEVIS form along with the letter of acceptance to a U.S. consulate near you to obtain an F-1 visa. The F-1 is required for you to enter into the United States. Visit the website for the U.S. consulate or embassy near you. Click the “Visas” tab. Select “Non-immigrant Visas.” Locate directions for making an appointment (Note: each consulate has different appointment procedures). Set an appointment where applicable or drop in if they accept walk-ins. Complete form DS-160 by entering your address, passport number, date of birth, length and purpose of your trip. A consular officer will take your passport from you and return it to you along with your SEVIS form once he’s stamped the F-1 Visa in your passport. Travel to the United States in time to start your program.
  3. Take courses required for the degree, including program design, program logic, telecommunication fundamentals and theory, algorithms and design. Sign up for additional courses in data structures, database management systems and computer architecture. Speak with your dean or program adviser about choosing electives in a specific area of concentration. Master’s degree courses will be more specific than undergraduate level courses and may require working on research projects with professors.
  4. Read the syllabus handed by out by the professor at the beginning of each course. Purchase the books and materials needed for every class. Study required reading and complete all assignments by the deadline listed in the syllabus. Ask questions of the professor in class or after class. Active participation in classroom discussion is part of the grade in many courses.

What Is the Importance of Computer Technology in Everyday Life?

Computer technology is used to serve and connect people in the modern world. Desktops, laptops and mobile devices network the world together and perform multiple operations at once; however, this industry includes more than these machines. Individuals, communities, government and organizations rely on computer technology to produce or innovate the majority of things in their lives, such as food, services, entertainment, care, communication, education and transportation.

Food

  • Farmers use innovations in computer technology to determine the best time to plant, fertilize, harvest and sell crops. The Internet offers weather and stock market reports in real-time, and its global network of potential buyers is more expansive than local merchants. New machinery, such as cow milking machines, uses basic computer programming routines to automate the care of animals and crops. Harvesting vehicles give drivers more information when gathering crops, and farmers can detect if plants are contaminated with fungal toxins. As farmers become aware of new farming technology, they can adapt their future farming methods.Milking machines use computer technology.

Services

  • Computer technology includes any machines that receive commands and perform calculations or services accordingly. Many types of operations, such as billing, record keeping, transactions and planning, take place through commercially available or customized machines. Most modern devices use microchips and processing units to perform their basic functions. ATM machines, gas station pumps, GPS units and barcode scanners may be common in everyday life; however, each relies on circuit boards and digital data to meet the needs of consumers.

    People gain more access to personalized services through the Internet. You could order a pizza or groceries online, and email your doctor’s office or visit WebMD.com after receiving indigestion from something you eat. Look for online coupons that print out as discounts or free merchandise coupons for local stores and restaurants. Scan a product’s barcode into your smartphone, and read reviews or price-match the item before purchasing it.Cashiers use barcode scanners to ring up items and maintain inventory.

Entertainment

  • Major motion pictures and television programs use some form of visual, audio and animation effects in their production. Video games employ graphics produced by a computer, and each game plugs into a computer-based home entertainment system. Players can play by themselves or with others over the Internet. Some game systems can sell downloadable programs and stream movies online.

    Use mobile phone applications to make reservations at restaurants or hair salons to reduce wait time. Purchase movie tickets online to avoid standing in a crowded line, or play a game on your phone while waiting for the movie to start. Store your music library on a single device instead of carrying around individual CDs.Use computer technology to purchase movie tickets online.

Care

  • A negative side effect of computer technology is the way it can affect your health. The field of ergonomics studies how a person’s sitting position when using electronic equipment can affect the user mentally and physically. People who sit incorrectly or who stare at a computer screen all day may experience headaches. The position of a computer keyboard can create or prevent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Other advances in computer technology have created more options for health care. Medical websites, such as WebMD.com, provide comprehensive overviews of what a person may be experiencing physically through their symptoms. Doctors offices can send patients a reminder email for an appointment, or fax a prescription to a pharmacy. Organic grocery stores or bulk sales of vitamin supplements can offer alternative options to traditional medicine.Physicians rely on computer technology to obtain current information on patients.

Communication

  • People correspond with friends, family, acquaintances and business associates through social media, email, texting and instant messaging. Use computers to create holiday newsletters, and print off labels instead of hand writing each envelope. Stay in touch from work at home, attend video conferences instead of having to travel and send a mass email through MailChimp.com. Avoid the expense of a high school reunion by forming connections to old classmates through Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and other social networking sites. Access news, weather forecasts, stock prices and more through websites and blogs that regularly compile top stories.Social media websites enable people to connect online in real-time.

Education

  • A computer is a useful tool for advancing educationally in traditional and non-traditional ways. Colleges and universities offer online courses for adults who are looking to obtain a degree without quitting their job. Younger students rely on computers to research and access information, or to submit their work to their teacher. Professional or volunteer tutors can be found online to gain help on a variety of topics.

    Computer technology makes it easier to learn more about other cultures. Use the Internet to take a virtual trip to another country by exploring ideas, art, music, products and other examples of culture. Have a video phone call on Skype with a missionary and order local ethnic food to eat while you interact.Schools with computer labs teach age-appropriate lessons on technology.

Transportation

  • The basic functions of modern vehicles are controlled through computer chips and circuitry. Engine microprocessors calculate the proper mix of air and fuel for combustion, and a circuit board regulates the timing of the spark plugs. Certain safety features or luxuries, such as airbags, cruise control, anti-lock brakes and automatic transmission, all rely on computer technology to function.

    GPS systems passively receive satellite signals that inform drivers of their location or how to find a specific destination. The device calculates the information and creates a display that adapts to movement, and it gives step-by-step directions on how to navigate the most-direct path available. Drivers can travel more confidently knowing that they can typically get where they need to go if service is available.Some GPS systems come pre-installed in newer vehicles.

What Is the Effect of Computer Technology in Education?

With the rapidly changing advances of this technological age, it is easy to overlook the influence computers have had on education. It was not so long ago that it was uncommon for households to have a computer. Today, computer technology is looked upon as more of a requirement than a luxury for school.

When Computers Became PopularYou may still know some teachers who go without a cellular phone, but you are not likely to find a teacher without an email account. In 1963, the Vocational Education Act was intended to provide more money to schools for technological support. Then the additional money for technology in schools was canceled in 1968, when it was believed the effort was waste in the classroom. However, in 1975, Apple computers were donated to some schools. By 1986, 25 percent of America’s high schools were using computers for vocational and college preparation. It was not until 1994 that the majority of schools had at least one PC available for instructional purposes.

Computers Encourage CreativityWith all of the programs and functions that computers and the Internet offer, there is something for everyone to use on a computer, which acts as an aid to students’ creativity. If you like music, you can easily find programs and activities related to music. If you like art, you can use design programs on the computer. With this additional freedom and opportunity to expand on what interests you, studies reported by John Cradler and Elizabeth Bridgforth of WestEd show that most students have improved in their homework and test scores, depending on the content and form of computer augmentation.

Students Ahead of TeachersThis generation of students has often been said to be the most computer adept. Coming into the computer age as a normality means that many high school students are more familiar with computer technology than some of the older generation who have had to learn computer skills late in life. Learning new skills is easier when you are younger, which may explain why students are often taking initiatives with their own learning when it comes to computer technology.

The Alteration in AttentionSince the younger generation is typically comfortable with computer technology, students’ attention to their schooling is believed to be more focused. Students are doing research online with ease and are supposedly motivated to learn more. Teachers, on the other hand, are no longer the main focus in the classroom while students go to the Internet for answers. And, particularly in computer classes, this sense of students’ independence is encouraged.

Easier to CheatUnfortunately, computer technology has also brought about easier means for students to cheat on their homework. Since most homework is typed, teachers cannot rely on comparing different forms of handwriting. In addition, students can merely copy work from the Internet or buy an essay online instead of doing their homework themselves. However, teachers are managing to keep up with students’ laziness and forms of plagiarism by using some online methods of their own to check students’ work through search engines and other computer programs.

The Importance & Advantages of Learning Computer Technology

Computers are an integral part of professional environments in the 21st century and not knowing how to do basic troubleshooting can be a drawback for job seekers. In addition, specialized professionals in computer technology, who can design and program computers and fix complicated problems, are imperative for any organization relying heavily on computers. Therefore, basic or advanced knowledge of computer technology can have a number of advantages for your career.

Computer Use at Workplaces

  • Coming up with a job that does not require the use of a computer is difficult. Journalists use computers to search for information and edit text or video, the police force uses computers to store criminal records, while even a self-employed shoe salesman can use the computer to keep his books intact with the help of spreadsheet software. Even rudimentary knowledge of computer technology is essential to undertake everyday tasks and improve your workplace performance.

Employment Opportunities

  • Most professions use computers for a variety of reasons, but being a computer technology specialist can open opportunities for technical jobs, such as computer programmer, technician, software development engineer and server analyst. As modern workplaces rely heavily on computers, they need specialists to ensure nothing goes wrong with the computer devices or the network. In addition, electronic methods of communication, including multimedia websites and mass email systems, are necessary for large organizations, and employees with computer technology knowledge can set them up.

Enhancing Your Resume

  • As CV Tips (see Reference 3) mentions, the advantage of being computer literate is “almost as clear as saying ‘good day.'” Since workplaces rely heavily on the use of computers as well as the services of computer experts, knowledge of computer technology can be the key to a successful job search. Mentioning in your resume that you have specific computer training can give you an interview call at the expense of a similarly qualified applicant who is computer illiterate.

Fast Skills Improvement

  • Having knowledge of computer technology means that you understand how computer hardware and software work and can adapt to any change. This knowledge can give you the upper hand when you must deal with new programs, such as updated content management systems or new features in technology. Computer technology does not remain stagnant and, as your position depends on using it efficiently, you must acquire the skills to follow developments closely.

Emerging Technologies in Information Technology

http://techportal.eere.energy.gov/images/techcat_icons/icon_emerging_technologies.gifThe Gartner Executive Programs report “Reimagining IT: The 2011 CIO Agenda,” an annual survey of the technology priorities of chief information officers (CIOs), is one of many useful guides on the emerging technologies that are important for business. Although these technologies often move into the mainstream, organizations are beginning to find new ways to use emerging technologies in information technology (IT).

Cloud

  • The Gartner survey suggests that cloud computing could change the way CIOs manage their operations. By renting processing or storage capacity from service providers with massive external servers, CIOs eliminate the cost of purchasing and supporting additional in-house servers. Cloud computing also releases some of an organization’s existing infrastructure, freeing it for projects focused on innovation and growth, rather than day-to-day operations. Renting software that users can access online rather than installing it on their PCs or laptops reduces purchasing, support and upgrade costs. Gartner comments that CIOs can use cloud to create and realize new sources of value, as well as achieving cost-effective IT operations.

Programming

  • Although cloud computing gives organizations immediate access to unlimited processing and storage power when they need to scale up their operations, the applications to fully exploit cloud have not yet caught up. Erica Naone, writing in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) “Technology Review,” lists cloud programming as one of its key emerging technologies. Currently, developers are converting existing programs to run on cloud, rather than creating new types of applications that could only work in the cloud environment, says the author.

Mobile

  • The launch of increasingly-powerful tablet PCs and smartphones is making mobile working a strong emerging trend. As IT managers develop enterprise-strength security solutions for these devices, organizations are allowing employees to use them to access corporate data and applications. In the MIT “Technology Review,” Nicholas Carr described how smartphones are beginning to feature 3-D imagery. Special software converts images from 2-D and allows users to view them without needing special glasses.

Social

  • Social-media networks such as Facebook and Twitter are well established in the consumer sector. These networks are now emerging as powerful business tools for applications such as marketing, customer-relationship management, collaboration, recruitment and product development.

Search

  • The sheer volume of data from social media is creating a challenge for search-engine providers and users. Data from social networks, blogs and news feeds can provide useful information for companies, helping identify and monitor trends and attitudes. The problem is how to categorize and rank that information while it remains fresh and useful. Developers are working on real-time search techniques to overcome that challenge and make social media useful for research.

Analytics

  • The search for greater business insight from the vast amount of available data is generating interest in analytics, which consultancy firm Accenture lists as one of its key emerging technologies. Cloud computing gives organizations the ability to collect, store and distribute greater volumes of data. Using analytics will enable organizations to differentiate themselves by creating more value from that data. Analytics help organizations build a more detailed understanding of customer needs, enabling them to develop customer-focused solutions and improve the precision of marketing communications. That ability can accelerate revenue growth and improve profitability.

How to Evaluate Emerging Technology

Determining whether new and emerging technology could be valuable can be a challenging endeavor. The varied nature of studies, along with the nuances of the technology itself, may include using data from surveys, focus groups, experiments, case studies and other resources for information. Often, little guidance is available from the technology community due to the sheer vastness of the arena and the speed at which developments take place. To help choose among the many alternatives when you assess an evolving technological development, an approach could include using case studies and experiments that engage outside public sources for the best type of unbiased evaluation.

Instructions

  1. Demonstrate the commercial potential of emerging technology in order to determine the feasibility of further development for any given technology. Reza Bandarian, in “The Evaluation of Commercial Potential of a New Technology at the Early Stage of Development with Fuzzy Logic” study, defines commercialization as converting or moving technology into a profit making position.

    According to the International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, the comprehensive Strategic Technology Evaluation Program (STEP) is a method plan model designed to link and coordinate existing agencies and services to assist in early evaluation of new environmental technologies.

    The STEP process can be helpful in determining what opportunities may exist for the commercialization of a particular technology. According to the Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, any new technology being considered to reach the market should be able to thrive and prosper in an evolving and unpredictable business environment.

  2. Use the STEP model to determine a technology’s commercial potential. This is a necessary prerequisite in defining what could be a successful commercialization strategy. The STEP can help determine the commercial potential of a certain candidate technology during the early stages of development. This strategy is useful to avoid spending unnecessary time and effort on a project.
  3. Include a number of characteristics which are broken into certain categories based on STEP, for every new technology. For example, according to Microsoft, building an enterprise application integration solution could include such tasks as helping to understand the functional quality requirements for some integrated applications. It can also include creating the initial architectural blueprint and selecting suitable integration applications to fulfill the application requirements for integrated applications. Another component can be validating that the combination of architecture and integration technology used to build the enterprise-wide application are likely to be successful before a major implementation investment is made.
  4. Ensure that the STEP approach described is continuously modified so as to evaluate the commercial potential of many emerging types of technologies. STEP is a framework that can be modified to fit different situations as may be found appropriate. According to Inder Science, versions of the STEP model have been tested on well over 100 emerging technologies as well as varied benchmarked market opportunity analyses. The STEP model presents technology screening, terminology and training of evaluator structural enhancements. Potential uses can include screening, prediction and evaluation factors that may affect technology’s commercial potential.

Information About Health Information Technology Salaries

The health information technology (IT) services industry is extensive, hiring workers from several different backgrounds. These professionals have diverse levels of education and experience, which impacts their potential salaries. Generally those with the most experience have the highest salaries, but salaries also vary by the type of employer.

Job

  • The health information technology (IT) services industry is large and employs several different types of workers. Those working as senior software engineers or developers, and programmers or IT managers have some of the highest salaries in the industry. According to PayScale.com, individuals in these jobs have respective median salaries of $85,600 and $82,100 as of April 2010. IT project mangers also broke above $80,000 with a median salary of $81,000. The industry also employs health care consultants, who have a median salary of $69,900.

Experience

  • The health information technology (IT) services industry rewards those with more experience with higher salaries, just like those in other career fields. As of April 2010, veterans with 20 plus years of experience have a median salary of $95,500, while beginners in the field (those with less than a year of experience) have a median salary of $46,500. In between the veterans and the newbies, those with 10 to 19 years of experience have a median salary of $86,400 and those with five to nine years of experience have a median salary of $70,100 according to PayScale.

Education

  • As with many other fields, individuals in health information technology (IT) services with higher levels of education generally have higher salaries than those with a lower level. According to PayScale, those with a master of business administration (MBA) have a median salary of $85,200 and those of a master of science (MS) in computer science have a median salary of $77,200. Of the reported incomes, those with a bachelor of science (BS) in business administration have some of the lowest salaries with a median of $53,800.

Employer Type

  • There are several employers within the health information technology (IT) services industry. Those in the industry working for the federal government have some of the highest salaries with a reported median of $79,500. Those working of colleges and universities have some of the lowest salaries with a median of $57,600 as of April 2010. According to PayScale, those who work for foundations/trusts or nonprofit organizations have reported median salaries of $71,300 and $72,300.

Benefits

  • The health information technology (IT) services industry goes beyond paying their employees just a salary with the inclusion of at least one other benefit. These benefits may include a retirement plan like a 401(k), life and disability insurance, and/or tuition and education reimbursement. Other benefits those in the health information technology (IT) services industry are paid holidays and vacation time, paid sick leave, and a cell phone allowance. According to PayScale, the most common benefits received amongst those in the industry are paid holidays/vacations and a 401(k).

The Role of Information Technology in Teacher Education

In 2008, the National Education Association reported that 19 states had technology requirements for teacher certification. As use of technology in work and daily life increases, so does the importance of teaching students how to use technology while they are in school. The U.S. Department of Education has funded programs for more than a decade to help schools and education colleges integrate technology into curriculum because of the awareness that both new and older teachers need training in it. Technology use has been limited to administrative functions for years, but there is more technology available in schools and it is helping students learn.

History

  • Two programs—the Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) Program and Teacher Quality Enhancement grants—have been funded by the U.S. Department of Education since 1999 to help states, education associations and higher education institutions integrate technology resources into teaching. The 2002 No Child Left Behind Act required that 25 percent of state federal technology funding be allocated for professional development and that the impact of professional development on the integration of technology into instruction be documented. The Preparing Teachers for Digital Age Learners (PTDAL) program replaced PT3 in 2008 but had not been funded.

Content

  • Both teachers and the Department of Education agree: More technology is available, but teachers do not know how to use it for instruction. NEA’s brief titled “Technology in Schools: The Ongoing Challenge of Access, Adequacy and Equity” asserts that technology training for teachers should focus less on administration, communications and research and focus more on applications for instruction. The goal of using technology in the classroom should be to help individualize education and develop cognitive skills.

Preservice Training

  • Many studies have shown information technology training is effective when it occurs in higher education courses before teachers are certified. According to J.A. Abbott, and S.E. Faris in the “Journal of Research on Computing in Education,” training in schools of education, known as preservice training, has been most effective when students are placed with teachers who use technology and when they are clustered in groups of eight to 12.Old models of teaching without actually using technology don’t work.

In-Service Training

  • Ongoing in-service education is also important to help teachers already in the classroom start to integrate technology effectively. J. Roschelle, R. Pea, C. Hoadley, D. Gordin and B. Means found in “The Future of Children: Children and Computer Technology” that “Intensive and ongoing staff development that provides opportunities for modeling, practice and reinforcement of technology use with curricula should be linked to curriculum goals and objectives from the onset of technology implementation efforts.”Teachers and administration should link technology use to curriculum.

Importance

  • As stated in 2002’s “Guidance on the Enhancing Education Through Technology (Ed Tech) Program” from the Department of Education, the goal of these grants is to improve student academic achievement through the use of technology in elementary and secondary schools, help students become technologically literate and encourage the effective integration of technology resources and systems with professional development and curriculum development to promote research-based instructional methods that can be widely replicated.Technology affects our world. Students needs to be literate in it.

How to Use Information Technology

Information technology is the process of using computer devices to obtain and handle information and data. It is something that is used by people all over the world in their businesses as well as in their homes. Before the information-technology age came to be, individuals had to obtain and handle their information by hand, which was quite time-consuming; however, those days are over. You don’t need to have a degree in information technology to use it. All you need is a computer device and the desire to work with information.

Instructions

  1. Use information technology to increase productivity in your home or business. Programs such as Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint can be used to create word documents, spreadsheets and presentations. By using programs such as these, you will save time and effort, instead of wasting time by writing out documents and data information with your hands.
  2. Utilize databases in your home or office that will allow you to store data on your clients and customers. Many customers, when they connect with organizations, provide information such as their name, address, telephone number, e-mail address and, sometimes, their social security numbers. By storing the client’s information in the database, you can shred the paperwork that contains confidential information. Because the information is being stored in a database, you can also have more control over who can view the information. You can assign usernames and passwords that are required to log into the database to access the information.
  3. Use information technology as a means to communicate. With so many features available, such as e-mail and instant messaging, you are sure to find a communication method that is more convenient than picking up a telephone.
  4. Use information technology to learn new information. With the power of the Internet, you have access to tons of information that some people pay to receive schooling for. You can search for any subject you would like to know about by entering the subject matter on an Internet search engine, such as Google.com, Yahoo.com, or Bing.com.
  5. Use information technology to create an online business. Through the Internet, you have access to billions more customers that will never step foot through your doors. If you have a business idea, you can market it online and make information technology work for you.
  6. Use information technology in your automobile by installing a GPS (Global Positioning System) device. The GPS device will help you to always know your location, even when you are lost. The GPS device can also help track your automobile if you should ever become the victim of auto theft.

How to Get an Entry Level Position in Information Technology

Information technology offers a wide variety of possible careers, but first you must get your foot in the door. You could specialize in programming, security, network administration or another area. Getting an entry-level position in information technology is typically a matter of four things: your basic education, experience, specialty certifications and technical skills.

Preparation Is The Key

  • Start with the formal education your specialty requires. Although hands-on technical skill is extremely valuable, most employers are looking for some proof of your knowledge. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that with the exception of computer support specialists and web developers, most information technology occupations require a bachelor’s degree. Many companies look for experience even in entry-level positions. Highlight previous work experience, college internships or volunteer work in information technology on your resume. Information technology is a field in which change is a constant. Last year’s top certifications might be passé this year. Obtain one or more certifications in your specialty to enhance your value to a potential employer. Don’t hesitate to ask for a chance to demonstrate your technical skills during the application and interview process.

How Does Computer Technology Improve Sports?

Sports is the ultimate test of human athleticism, but that’s not to say computers can’t help. Technology can help overcome some of the human limitations in officiating and administering sports. In turn that makes it easier to fairly judge performance and be more certain that the better competitor will win.

Instant Replay

  • Instant replay is a great example of technology moving from television coverage of sports to becoming a part of the sport itself. Being able to review video footage allows officials to see exactly what happened, overcoming the problem of missing the fine details in the heat of the action. Opinions are split about where instant replay works well: it is accepted as part of the game in sports like NFL football or cricket which have natural breaks in play, but is more controversial in free-flowing games such as rugby, and is rarely used in combat sports where a delay could allow a fighter to recover. Instant replay can also make things more interesting: both football and cricket limit the number of times a coach or player can demand an instant replay, meaning they must decide whether to risk calling for a borderline review. Sometimes instant replay can be too effective: during the 2010 World Cup, organizing body FIFA banned instant replays appearing on screens in the stadium over concerns it would provoke crowd anger over a controversial referee decision!

Sensor Tools

  • Several sports use technology to review cases where the position of a player, ball or other equipment affects the progression or outcome of a game, and where the human eye may not be able to accurately detect that position in real time. Different sports use different techniques: tennis systems usually rely on laser beams along the court lines to see if the ball breaks the line, while cricket’s Hawk-Eye system measures sound to detect whether the ball hit the bat before being caught. While most systems detect actual positioning, Hawk-Eye is sometimes used to predict where a ball would have gone had it not hit the player’s leg, which determines whether the player unfairly blocked it from hitting the wicket.

Timing Systems

  • The days of a human clicking a stopwatch on and off to time a race are long gone, meaning variations in human reaction time no longer limit the reliability and accuracy of a race time. Most races (whether on vehicles, foot or in the water) use a combined system in which the starting “pistol” also starts the clock running, while the competitors breaking a virtual barrier such as a laser beam on a finish line stops the clock, though swimming uses a touch-pad at the end of each lane. In most race sports, if two competitors cross a line with the same time, they are separated using a visual reference, either a “photo finish” from a camera triggered by the same mechanism as stopped the clock, or by frame-by-frame analysis of video of the event. Although timing systems can measure to the nearest thousandth of a second to determine a winner, Olympic and world records are usually only kept to the nearest hundredth of a second, something that’s designed to eliminate the effects of tiny inaccuracies in making sure a particular course (such as a 50-meter pool lane) is a precise distance.

RFID Chips

  • For races longer than sprints, which thus allow a little more leeway in precision, RFID chips are a common way of timing individual participants. The chips exchange a wireless signal with sensors at the finish line and, in many longer races, at checkpoints along the way. This makes it possible for spectators and broadcasters to accurately track the relative positions of competitors during the race, even in events such as marathons that have dozens of racers. Races can use two different types of chips. Active chips, which include a tiny battery, can track the time a racer passes a particular line almost perfectly. Passive chips, which don’t have a power supply, can only be used with sensors built into a mat which may be several feet across, which can introduce a margin of error equivalent to a couple of strides.

The Effect of Digital Technology on Music

Just as with words, numbers and graphic images, sound can be turned into digital data. Sound’s transformation from a mechanical and analog experience to one contained within a computer’s memory continues to expand. From the very first computers generating electrical impulses to vibrate a speaker, to today’s worldwide recording industry, digital technology affects music in many ways. Today, the compact disc, MP3 music file, synthesizer and wireless microphone connection are all part of digital technology’s complete integration with making and listening to music.

Synthesizer

  • The most obvious illustration of digital technology and music is the synthesizer. Employing digital data to create, control, fluctuate and mimic sound, the synthesizer is used in many ways to make and enhance music. Although most widely known as a keyboard device similar to a piano, synthesizers can produce sound with input from many sources–guitar strings, drums and of course computer keyboards. Since the advent of digital circuitry with synthesizers in the 1970s, older analog instruments with vacuum tubes, knobs and dials have become very rare.

Miniaturization

  • As digital technology has miniaturized to the point of being almost microscopic, making music is also a much less complicated effort. Whether in studio for recording a musician, or listening to an iPod personal music player, digital miniaturization makes music easier and more affordable for every aspect of the musical experience. Whole recording studios can now be contained in a personal computer. Outstanding stereo sound is available in small earplugs attached to a device the size of a pack of gum. Although traditional instruments such as trombones and tubas still need room for a performance, the microphones and recording devices saving their sounds are now smaller and more capable than machines 20 years ago that filled a whole room.

Recording

  • There can be no music industry without recording the sound for replay. Without recording, all music would need to be a live performance. Digital recording is taking sounds from any instrument and storing it as data to be retrieved later for editing, mixing and eventually copying for distribution. There are criticisms of digital recording that it is not as “warm” or realistic as older analog (tape or phonograph) recording. As research and development with musical digital recording continues, however, the differences between old and new continue to diminish.

Processing

  • Digitally processing music is now a desktop job. Whereas in years past, a producer and music editor would spend hours or days listening to tapes, cutting with razor blades, splicing pieces together and rerecording multiple sounds onto other tapes, today it’s all done with a computer. Digital processing allows a music producer to take sounds recorded months or years apart in different areas of the world, bring them to one computer platform and mix them quickly using special music processing software.

Music Files

  • One of the most pervasive aspects of digital recording seen is the way music is copied and played. MP3 files are digital music formats playable as a standard file on almost every digital musical device. MP3 (and newer MP4) files can contain long passages of grand symphonies or just a three-minute pop music hit. The format also provides for stereo sounds (bass in the left speaker, treble in the right) and easy copying and transmitting between computers.

What Instruments Are Used in Techno Music?

With the increasing popularity of techno and other forms of electronic music, many have begun to inquire about the instruments that produce techno music’s distinctive sound. Electronic music and music technology have proved to be additional mediums through which modern artists can break the conventional molds of composition and representation that was started in the 20th century by modern painters, poets and thinkers.

The Facts

  • Techno music uses electronic instruments, e.g., synthesizers and software programs, to create its idiosyncratic sound. What these electronic instruments do is replicate an acoustic sound by employing what are called samples. Basically, music sampling is when a sound engineer records a brief sample or snapshot of an acoustic instrument and then plays it back and manipulates the sound to account for all subsequent pitches. Techno music, which falls under the larger genre of electronic music or electronica, is known for its repetitious drum rhythms and general instrumental nature.

Effects

  • The use of electronic instruments creates an error-free, sometimes unrealistic sound. While these electronic instruments are used to replicate real sounds, the sounds often sound uniform and detached. Adding to this effect are layers of manipulated or “wet” sound. Many techno artists will often employ the use of auto-tune software to perfect the pitches on a vocal melody, simultaneously giving the voice a more robot-like quality. At the core of every techno song is the drumbeat. The drumbeat drives the progression, which can usually be seen as the adding of layers until reaching a chorus.

Electronic Pervasiveness

  • Like many genres in music, the lines between techno music and other forms of electronic music have become somewhat blurred, and increasingly difficult for discern. With further advances in music technology, electronic music seems well positioned to take the place of more conventional acoustic instruments, and is already doing so. We hear electronic music on our television sets as the score to our favorite film, in video games and even on our cellular phones. Financial as well as practical reasons can be attributed to electronic music’s ubiquity in today’s entertainment.

Benefits

  • Like many of the first DJs to produce techno music, we can all capitalize on the affordability of electronic instruments. Instead of paying thousands of dollars to hire an entire orchestra, why not just buy software with the sampled sounds of one, at a fraction of the price? If you opt to take the electronic route you sacrifice the acoustic richness of a live orchestra, but gain the practically error-proof playback on digital music software. DJs in Detroit found this to be an effective tool that inspired them to develop an entirely new genre of dance music.

Instruments in Techno Music

  • Techno music uses electronic synthesizers and drum machines to replicate acoustic sounds. The instruments replicated vary greatly. Usually at the songs base is a drum pattern, which commonly uses sounds of an electronic drum machine. Besides vocals, which are usually layered with effects, electronic music uses synthesizer-based instruments almost exclusively.

The Effects of Modern Technology on the Study Habits of Students

With advances in technology, student study habits have dramatically changed. Technology has affected the way teachers present information; therefore, students are learning and studying differently. Gone are the days of slaving over books in the library and scribbling down notes on paper.

Resources

  • The Internet allows students to access virtually all information that is publicly available from the comfort of their homes. They do not need to travel or even to go to a library. Books are scanned in to the Internet, museums have work available online, and college library sites offer online access to academic journals.

Speed

  • Students can now gain access to information in far quicker ways. Once a resource has been found, they can quickly search the entire document by typing in a key word, rather than having to look in a book’s index. Mathematical calculations can also be performed on special programs, while graphs can be plotted instantly.

Sharing

  • Information can now be shared between staff and students in far more efficient ways. Schools can set up online portals where students can download necessary files, or alternatively send them by email. Students can then print them out as required. The role of professors has changed; they are no longer the dispensers of information but instead facilitate learning by providing guidelines and recommended resources.

Typing

  • Students are increasingly choosing to type notes rather than write them. Laptops are portable and inexpensive. Even math formulas can be typed using certain programs. Students can use PowerPoint to learn key concepts with visual aid and can then present their information to the class.

Flexibility

  • Studying has become far more flexible, meaning students can choose to learn and present information in their own ways. Those who prefer visual learning can choose to watch documentaries or tutorials on the Internet, while others can download books to read. Many college courses now offer online labs as part of the course work, so students can study writing, reading and math principles at home at any hour of the day or night.

Disruption

  • Although it’s easier to access more information, it’s also easier to become distracted from work when using technology, an affliction known as DAD (divided attention disorder). With the temptation to check bank balances, speak to someone on a smart phone or download a song available at the click of a button, many students have trouble finishing essays or doing some important reading.

The Impact of Information Technology on Accounting

Information technology (IT) has created significant benefits for accounting departments. IT networks and computer systems have shortened the lead time needed by accountants to prepare and present financial information to management and stakeholders. Not only has IT shortened the lead time required to present financial information, but it also has improved the overall efficiency and accuracy of the information.
Computerized Accounting SystemsThe biggest impact IT has made on accounting is the ability of companies to develop and use computerized systems to track and record financial transactions. Paper ledgers, manual spreadsheets and hand-written financial statements have all been translated into computer systems that can quickly present individual transactions into financial reports.

Most of the popular accounting systems can also be tailored to specific industries or companies. This allows companies to create individual reports quickly and easily for management decision making. Additionally, changes can be made relatively easy to reflect any economic changes in business operations.

Increased FunctionalityComputerized accounting systems have also improved the functionality of accounting departments by increasing the timeliness of accounting information. By improving the timeliness of financial information, accountants can prepare reports and operations analyses that give management an accurate picture of current operations. The number of financial reports has also been improved by computerized systems; cash flow statements, departmental profit and loss, and market share reports are now more accessible with computerized systems.

Improved AccuracyMost computerized accounting systems have internal check and balance measures to ensure that all transactions and accounts are properly balanced before financial statements are prepared. Computerized systems will also not allow journal entries to be out of balance when posting, ensuring that individual transactions are properly recorded.

Accuracy is also improved by limiting the number of accountants that have access to financial information. Less access by accountants ensures that financial information is adjusted only by qualified supervisors.

Faster ProcessingComputerized accounting systems allow accountants to process large amounts of financial information and process it quickly through the accounting system. Quicker processing times for individual transactions has also lessened the amount of time needed to close out each accounting period. Month- or year-end closing periods can be especially taxing on accounting departments, resulting in longer hours and higher labor expense. Shortening this time period aids companies in cost control, which increases overall company efficiency.

Better External ReportingReports issued to outside investors and stakeholders have been improved by computerized accounting systems. Improved reporting allows investors to determine if a company is a good investment for growth opportunities and has the potential to be a high-value company. Companies can utilize these investors for equity financing, which they use for expanding business operations.

What Are the Benefits of Computer Technology?

Computer technology controls satellites and traffic signals. MP3 players and cellular phones rely on it. When people drive, they depend on a computer to keep their vehicle’s engine running properly. Governments use it to streamline services and enhance defense. Even basic television broadcasting now depends on complex computer management to keep things moving. Computer technology permeates the fabric of contemporary life at home, at work and even at play.

Communication

  • Computer technology provides a number of benefits in terms of fast communication. Instant messaging systems allow users to exchange information in real time without necessitating a call or physically moving to another location. Video conferencing systems enable users to see each other in real-time, regardless of their locations. Email programs provide the opportunity to send personal or professional messages, even legal documents, in a fraction of the time traditional postal services provide.

Business

  • Computer technology benefits business at every level. Computer technology allows for the automation of numerous manufacturing processes. It provides real-time access to financial markets across the globe, 24 hours a day. A variety of software packages exist that enable companies with multiple warehouses to track total inventory, ordering and sales for the entire company, rather than wait on weekly or monthly hard copy reports. The internet provides a means for businesses to list their full line of products and provide purchase options without catalogs, brick-and-mortar store locations or on-site personnel.

Medicine

  • There is an entire sub-discipline in the field of information technology called “health informatics” that focuses on integration of various computer technologies into the medical field. For example, pharmacy informatics streamlines the electronic communication and fulfillment of prescriptions, which reduces risk by cross-checking patient information against their records. Advanced medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, rely on computers to translate the raw data from the equipment into a visual format that doctors use to provide better diagnoses.

Travel

  • Computer technology radically alters the process of travel. Savvy travelers no longer need a travel agent to get to their destination of choice. Online services provide travelers the chance to book tickets, compare prices and even to plan routes for travel by car, all of which reduce costs in time and money. GPS systems, particularly in-vehicle GPS systems, give drivers accurate navigational information as they travel. Some systems provide audio instruction to the driver about when and where to turn, which reduces the odds of getting lost.

Education

  • The educational benefits of computer technology are manifold. Computers in classroom provide young children the opportunity to learn skills, such as touch-typing, and core types of programs, such as word processing and spreadsheet applications, they will need throughout their careers. The Internet allows users the world over to pursue informal and formal distance learning, ranging from simple how-to videos up to graduate level college degrees.

Comparision of WAN Technologies

The advances technologies such as ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM and SDH/SONET are being integrated for the data and voice traffic being transmitted over the internet. In olden days the telephone lines used carried voice traffic in the form of analog and were know as Plain Old Telephone System (POTS), but at present the telephones and the computers use digital technology for the voice and data traffic. Devices like modems are being used to convert analog into digital and vice versa. As more and more peoples are using internet the data and voice traffic is being transmitted over the same line. In my report I will focus on some of the modern technologies for voice and data traffic and the devices that are being used for the purpose in the Wide Area Network. At present the most emerging technology being used in the Wan is VOIP. It transmits voice over the internet using the packets. The users can transmit audio and video over a data network. The analog signal is converted into digital using the modem. The modem converts analog signals into small digital packets to be transmitted over the network. At the receiver end the data is demodulated and the file is converted into an AVG file. This procedure is being used in VOIP, Video conferencing and streaming of audio and video clips on the internet. With this the WAN technologies are emerging and many WAN devices are being used.

WIDE AREA NETWORKS:

Several Local Area Network connected is know as Wide Area Network. This helps in transmitting data to longer distances using a single network. Better example for this would be different branches of a company around the world are interconnected using the Wide Area Network. The branches use LAN in the branch and WAN between different branches which helps the business to grow at a faster pace and with security.

WAN DEVICES:

The various WAN devices available in the market are being manufactured on the lines of reliability and security of the network. Some of them are

Router:

In the network a router helps to connect one or more than one computers. Normally for home users they are helpful in taking a single broadband connection and spreading

Figure: Router

it to other computers. Backbone of an internet is usually by industrial routers which are used in the telecom industry. Each router has a table configured to make connections which lead to a group of IP addresses. The routing table also have the rules to handle different types of traffic.

Switch:

A switch is every so often called a ‘intelligent hub’, and at the present that they are no longer considerably more costly than the hubs they have roughly replaced them completely. A switch works alike as a hub, with the aim of to connect devices to let them to work as a single segment. However, it does not repeatedly transmit traffic to each and every port. Whenever a frame of data enters into the switch, it save the physical address (MAC address) and the port it come from in its MAC address table. Then it checks the target MAC address in the table, and if it recognises it sends the frame to the suitable port. If the address is not the table, or address is a broadcast address (intended for every machine on the local network), then it do the equivalent as a hub and transmits the frame throughout every port apart from the originating port.

Hub:

A hub is a tool for connecting various Ethernet devices (usually PCs) to outline a single segment – a part of a network that is unconnected from other parts of the network. It has several ports throughout which devices are joined, and while it receives data it send it out over through every port apart from the one it come in through. Initially Ethernet networks use coaxial cables. Each computer was fixed with a transceiver, which is connected straight into a long part of coaxial cable – a bus. This means that the traffic flowing on the network is visible to every one on the network.

Modem:

The short form for modulator and demodulator is Modem. It converts digital frequencies of the computer in to analog to make it transmit over the telephone or cable lines. At the receiver end the modem successfully demodulates the analog into digital and gives it to the computer to carry out appropriate functions.

Figure: Modem

WAN FACILITIES:

ISDN:

The replacement for old age analog technology is the ISDN. It was implemented to create a more reliable and faster transport mechanism. It is cheaper than a leased line and it takes seconds to install it. The standard ISDN, Broadband ISDN is the version most people are aware of which is the ATM.

The end equipment protocol is defined by the ITU I and the switch/network protocol is defined by the ITU Q series.

Structure of ISDN

The protocol model for ISDN is represented in the following diagram:

Figure: Structure of ISDN

SONET/SDH:

With the beginning of PCM tools in the 1960s, communications networks are steadily transformed to digital technology above the next few years (Werner, Fundamentals and SONET testing). To deal with the stipulate for ever high bit rates, a multiplex hierarchy called the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) evolve. The bit rates begin with the fundamental multiplex rate of 3 Mbit/s with additional stages of 8, 34 and 140 Mbit/s. The 1980s see a start in the growth of the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), with the purpose to eliminate the disadvantage inbuilt in PDH. SDH bring the subsequent advantages to network provider.

  1. High transmission rates

Transmission rates of up and about 10 Gbit/s can be achieve in current SDH systems.

  1. Simplified add and drop function

When compared to the old PDH system, it is a lot easier to take out and insert low-bit rate channels on or after or into the high-speed bit streams in SDH.

  1. Reliability

Modern SDH networks consist of various repeated back-up and repair mechanism to deal with system faults.

  1. Future platform for advanced services.

At present, SDH is the suitable platform for the advanced services ranging from ISDN, POTS through to data communications (LAN, WAN).

  1. Interconnectivity

SDH makes it easy to install or set up new gateways in between various network providers and SONET systems.

Figure: SDH Layer Model

Difference between SDH and SONET:

SDH is the synchronous digital hierarchy that is use every where apart from in the USA, Canada and Japan. SONET (Synchronous optical network) is the American counterpart of SDH. Designs of this transmission technology in America begin as far back as 1985. The SONET basic bit rate is 51.48 Mbit/s and is named STS-1 (synchronous transport signal). If the bit rate is transmit above an optical cable system, the signal is named as OC-1 (optical container)

SONET Signal

Bit Rates

SDH Signals

STS-1

51.84 Mbit/s

STM-0

STS-3

155.52 Mbit/s

STM-1

STS-12

622.08 Mbit/s

STM-4

STS-48

2488.32 Mbit/s

STM-16

STS-192

9953.28 Mbit/s

STM-64

Table: Levels in Hierarchy

Public Data Network:

The people around the world use public network to send and receive data which is also know as internet. If a user is making a call using the internet then its priority will be high because the user is using an expensive technology. If its security and reliability is ignored then more and more private networks will be formed by different companies which will lead to congestion of the network The common carrier subscriptions which own telecom services are known as public networks. It supports the transmission of voice traffic over the internet using the modems through the telephone sockets and gain automated access to users around the world. In this there is no wastage of bandwidth as the calls are being made over the internet and this will be a reliable and suitable for small companies

ATM:

ATM is the short form for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Circuit switching usually requires that packets are placed into position in recurring frames, i.e. synchronous, in time, in step according to use and/or network clocks. Asynchronous transmission allow cells to be placed anywhere in the data stream. ATM at present has speeds of 155Mbps (OC-3 ports), 622Mbps (OC-12 ports), 1.2 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps. Since the cells are rigid in length (53 octets, or bytes) quite than variable such as an Ethernet frame, they can be switch in hardware to a certain extent than software and these accounts for the high speeds that can be attain than Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI.

ATM is very lithe and allow the transmission of a variety of media type such as voice, video, data files etc. all demanding the network in changed ways, video, for example can be extremely subject to a sudden slowdown in network routine as altering speed video is very disturbing. ATM allows committed circuits with certain bandwidths and differing needs to be set up at the same time (http://www.rhyshaden.com/atm.htm). Quality of Service (QoS) can be locate up and is certain at connection stage by means of parameter such as delay, delay jitter and error rate base on the function and the position of the network at the moment of connection. Two priority for traffic are defined; High priority and Low priority. Low priority traffic force is leftover if around are switch congestion trouble. Particularly voice and video traffics include to be transferred by means of previous methods such as MPLS over ATM and IP over ATM, where QoS maintain advantages of the ATM are subjugated in exacting (Cemal Kocak, et.al, 2007). There is no joint media or conflict based protocols in ATM, each machine has 155Mbps all to itself. In ATM you be able to multiplex ‘cell streams’ so as to may be for totally different application, the structure works in ‘connection oriented’ form thereby guarantee cell sequencing for those cells in a exacting connection.

Frame Relay:

It is developed by the values or technology base on ISDN (Piliouras, 2005). The communication is among end users by following the interface of public network and private network (Taylor, 2000). It handles high traffic on internet at high speeds and on the whole handles data networking issue at high speed by functioning on following principles:

Solution for errors like congestion occurs, discarding frames and means to improve errors at end user method. It works on applications of data and is based on packet switching (Smith, 1996). The data is distributed into frames of variable length similar as in packet switching, which is sent to target through frame relay networks. The difference between frame relay and packet switching is that frame relay is second layer protocol of OSI where as packet switching is third layer protocol but frame relay is quite straightforward compared to packet switching linking locations all the way through access circuit to networks (Green, 2000). Carrier information rate (CIR) is the element which is used to charge and it guarantees the transporting the carrier through, Access Circuit cost is classify by LEC and port speed which is a manifold of 64 Kbps.

CONCLUSIONS:

The idea of information backdrop, issue concerning technology, in force scenarios and advance to protocols management for WAN technologies and a lot of unresolved promotion and technological questions concerning coexist of conventional communications of voice. The WAN technology should further develop earlier than the considerable possible acceptance and also customer service and billing methods. Additional determine execution of WAN and efficient structure of billing method for calls using VOIP system and also sophisticated procedures. Advancement or adoption of WAN technologies will in the end resolve services, price efficiency and Quality of Service. The trouble for session timeout, issue of reliability and solution of feeble slow link have to be resolve. The mixing of data protection system is necessary for errors correction and dependable to run the arbitrary data or voice traffic over the internet internet.

References:

Cathrine Paquet, 2001, “Building Cisco Remote Access Networks” Cisco Press CompTia, Que Publishing.

Cemal Kocak, et.al, MPLS over ATM and IP over ATM methods for multimedia applications, Computer Standards & Interfaces 31 (2009), pp 153–160, 2007.

Dennis & Fitzgerald, 2005, “Business Data Communications Networking“, John Wiley & Sons.

Gupta C P, 2006, “Data Communications and Computer Networks“, India, Prentice Hall of India.

Huggins D, Ferguson B, 2002, “Designing a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure“, Que Publishing.

Emerging Technology Involving Credit/debit Cards

With an increasing trend in online shopping and transactions happening across the globe, there is an imperative need for a plastic card, which will be safe and secure to use. We need to address online fraud, more so in cases where card not present (CNP) transactions like a telephonic order. Every day, millions of consumers use the plastic currencies to make or receive payments across the globe conveniently and quickly. Is it safe and is it getting better?

 

Visa has a two-fold responsibility – to protect the information of the cardholder and to transfer value in a safe and secure environment devoid of fraud and theft. These transactions may be online or made in person. Visa Europe partnered with EMUE Technologies Pty Ltd to develop a stylish and powerful solution to address the growing cases of CNP fraud. They have been addressing these issues with initiatives like CVV2, and verified by Visa. They are testing a new Visa card with the help of MBNA (UK), Corner Bank (Switzerland), Cal (Israel) and IW Bank (Italy). This card has a built in computer that will generate a one-time password in a random manner. This new design has incorporated a microprocessor, a 12 button key pad, 8 digit number displays and a battery lasting a minimum of three years. It is a fully ISO compliant card, authentic and user friendly. This card can also be deployed for identity card purposes as well.

 

The card holder is given a pin number secretly. The individual is required to enter the pin into the card. This will then generate a number randomly and is displayed. This will remain the security code (CVV code) for all transactions and is generated only once. The validity and secrecy is maintained with only the individual having access to the PIN number.

 

Issuing banks have been given an unchallenged method in preserving the integrity and security during online, telephonic, personal transactions and a much safer method in cases of fund transfer. Thus, they ensure that the individual does not have to share his credentials with any other source that cannot be trusted upon.

 

For now, let us just wait and watch the response gained as these are monetary transactions before stepping in for action.

 

About EMUE: EMUE Technologies is a privately held Australian firm with a vision to address issues regarding authentication in an attempt to mitigate theft. They have partnered with Deloitte Touche Tohamatsu in 2006 to help roll out of the products and services. They are leaders in providing secure access.

 

Visa Europe became independent of the new global Visa Inc. in the year 2007. The new global Visa Inc. restructured and listed in the New York Stock Exchange in the year 2008. They have begun trading publicly with one the largest initial public offering in the U.S. A membership association was formed and operated by approximately 4600 European member banks in the name of Visa Europe. Together, they operate electronic payment network in a global manner by facilitating global commerce. They transfer information and value amongst financial institutions, merchants, consumers, and governments across 170 nations and territories.

The Effects of Modern Technology on Relationships

Modern technologies have changed the way that people communicate with one another. These technologies provide new and innovative ways for people to communicate — text messaging, email, chat and social networks. They allow faster and more efficient communication and can help build relationships. However, modern technologies can also have negative effects such as limiting personal contact and straining relationships. The nature of the effect depends in large part on the type of relationship.

Family RelationshipsModern technologies limit the amount of separation between work and home. With the advent of computers, the Internet and cell phones people can — and are often expected to — address work issues from home. This can limit family interactions and cause conflict between family members. The use of Internet and television by children and teenagers also limits the amount time spent with family and can increase conflict between children and their parents.

Youth FriendshipsYoung people use modern technologies in increasing numbers to communicate with their friends. Text messaging and online chats have become the preferred method of youth communication. A California State University and UCLA study indicates that for young people face-to-face interactions are less desirable than modern modes of communication. This preference could cause an inability to form lasting friendships or difficulty understanding social cues. Others believe that modern technologies increase communication and therefore strengthen friendships.

New RelationshipsStarting new relationships — romantic and otherwise — can be difficult. Modern technologies allow people to make new connections without the fears characteristic of face-to-face contact. The anonymity and low risk is what makes Internet dating and social networks popular ways of meeting people. However, this anonymity can also be dangerous. In April 2011, a woman sued an online dating site after allegedly being raped by a man she met online.

Romantic RelationshipsModern technologies allow couples to be in contact with each other more than ever before. This can lead to increased expectations and conflict. With the increasing use of cell phones and email, people often expect an instant reply to communication. A delayed reply — or none at all — can lead to suspicion and anger. The use of social networks can also affect relationships. Information that was once private — such as relationship conflicts — is now part of the public sphere.

Uses of Modern Technology in Classroom Teaching

Nobody can deny that technology has revolutionized education. Educators have also dramatically adjusted their teaching methods in response to new technology over the years. Gone are the “field of dreams” days when believing that simply putting computers in the classroom would automatically make a difference. Many schools now carefully consider cost and application when debating how to best use new technology.

eacher-Centered Technology

  • Gadgets that are used strictly by teachers are designed to either enhance presentations, help with bookkeeping or assist with outside communications. Projection devices have become more affordable and now are nearly standard in many classrooms. Interactive whiteboards, although still expensive, provide an instant interface between the classroom and cyberspace, allowing teachers to transform lectures into real-time multimedia presentations.

Student-Centered Technology

  • Although providing laptops for every K-12 student in the classroom is still cost-prohibitive for most school districts, wireless mobile labs can be used in group projects. These devices connect directly to the school’s Internet access, and the signal is relayed to laptops that can be distributed to students. Individual word processors are now also becoming more affordable as well as smaller, hand-held devices such as personal digital assistants that can be hot-synced to the teacher’s computer.

Advantages of Classroom Technology

  • Gadgets in the classroom can create a more interesting, interactive environment that students are mostly already familiar with outside school, except in the poorest districts. If schools strive to keep current with technological trends and budget their priorities, then the learning that takes place becomes more relevant and meaningful to students. Computer literacy and knowledge of major software programs is no longer reserved for higher educational systems or special trade schools in today’s society.

Disadvantages of Classroom Technology

  • Besides being cost-prohibitive, the constant maintenance and upgrading of classroom technology can put a strain on time that should be devoted to teaching and learning. Also, not all teachers are as tech savvy as they should be, especially when it comes to solving hardware problems. Hiring tech specialists to work in school districts is difficult because the business world often offers more lucrative opportunities.

Funding

  • Technology grants and charitable foundations exist for needy districts. Apple initially cornered the market on educational uses for technology because of its more user-friendly systems. Apple still is the preferred choice for many educators because of the discounts and special options it offers to its clients. Because of many crossover software packages that have been developed, Macintosh and Microsoft environments are gaining equal access into modern classrooms. Whichever platform educational decision-makers choose, the future remains unpredictable, and today’s good buy may end up on tomorrow’s junk heap of outdated technology.

Music Technologies of the ’80s

Audio and music recording and reproduction technologies made a significant leap during the 1980s. White music recording methods from previous decades, which provided analog reproductions of the original sound, were still in wide use during this time, the ’80s also heralded the first commercially available digital medium.

Compact Cassettes

  • Although Philips originally released the Compact Cassette in the 1960s as an audio dictation system, it became one of the dominant forms of music technology in the 1980s. Prior to the ’80s, the quality of Compact Cassette recordings was inferior to that of other magnetic tape systems. Improvements in recording and playback technology in the ’80s saw the Compact Cassette achieve comparable quality to LPs and FM radio, with the added advantage of making home recordings possible. After reaching the peak of its popularity in the 1980s, the Compact Cassette saw a rapid decline as the CD took a more dominant role in the 1990s.

LP Record

  • The long playing microgroove record, or LP, dates back to the 1940s, but was a central music recording technology in the 1980s. Advances in LP recording and playback technology culminated in the 1980s, allowing vinyl to compete with the likes of Compact Cassettes and FM radio. While tapes and CDs dominated home audio equipment in the 1980s, nightclubs, radio stations and other music venues used LP and single-playing microgroove analog records.

Compact Disks

  • In 1982, Philips and Sony launched the first commercially available digital music platform: the Compact Disc. The CD, an evolution of the failed Laserdisc technology of the 1970s, uses an optical storage system that is read by a laser. The use of an error correction code allows a CD to maintain full audio specifications, even if the disk is scratched or marked, and the disc does not degrade over time or through extended use, as magnetic tapes and microgroove records do. By the end of the 1980s, the CD had established itself as the natural successor to the cassette tape and vinyl record.

FM Radio

  • Frequency modulation, or FM, radio offers a considerably higher bandwidth than its amplitude modulation, or AM, predecessor. This allows for greatly improved sound quality and reception. Although FM radio was patented in the 1930s, it wasn’t until the end of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s that FM listenership exceeded that of AM. During the 1980s, major radio stations begin a mass shift from AM to FM broadcasting, with many abandoning the former technology in favor of the superior sound of FM broadcasting.

Emerging Issues in Business and Technology

Business leaders assess emerging trends in business and technology to identify growing societal, business and technology issues. Companies identify these issues and explore future innovation, emerging technologies, business processes and best practices to identify perspective markets and areas of business growth. Through the assessment of emerging trends in business and technology, businesses can maintain a competitive advantage and identify business areas where difficulties may arise.

Societal Trends

  • As real-time global communication brings individuals closer together; business must identify product and service opportunities using a more human-centric approach. Studying the behaviors of consumers helps businesses to adjust business models and advertising to attract specific demographics. An example of how societal trend affect business is the new trend of “Social TV.” A joint 2010 U.S. study by Nielsen and Yahoo! discovered that more than 86 percent of mobile Internet users communicate with each other during television broadcasts. A 2011 survey by Digital Clarity discovered that 72 percent of people under 25 in the U.K. use social networking to comment on shows as they watch them.

Business Trends

  • Globalization and technology are changing business. New business models take into account the global market place through the development of global strategic markets, manufacturing and advertising collaborations. A business’ capacity to understand global and societal trends will determine its products, marketplaces, marketing and its survivability.

    As business and technology continue to create global networks, the need for security will increase. Businesses will need every-changing data security plans to continually safeguard sensitive data and protect consumers from fraud and identity theft. Disaster-recovery plans also become essential as disasters in other countries may affect business product or sales in another. Businesses need emergency procedures in place to cover all kinds of disasters including terrorism and societal unrest.

Technology Trends

  • Innovations in communication technologies have given birth to social networking. Real-time reviews of products and services instantly affect businesses. Moviegoers no longer wait for movie review or to tell their friends about their movie experiences, instead they use social networks for movie fans, such as flixster.com, to post their comments. Movies that could make money over a weekend now fail on their first day of release. Global issues, such as energy and the environment will encourage businesses to develop green technologies to reduce energy expenditures and clean the environment. Emerging green technologies, such as fuel-celled power, will continue to develop. Business will begin to look to energy-efficient technologies to reduce costs.

Economic Trends

  • The Great Recession has had an impact on the America and global economy. In a 2010 survey conducted by Pew Research Center, 54 percent of Americans say they are just getting by while four out of 10 surveyed say the recession forced them to make major lifestyle changes. Most surveyed cited cutting back or eliminating non-essential items and entertainment to save money.

    Recessions also affect global migration and hiring. According to the International Organization for Migration, about 3 percent of the global workforce works as migrant labor. These workers are often the first to be let go in their host country and find difficulties repatriating to find work. Studies in the U.S., Canada and Europe indicate business tends to contact applicants with native names more than applicants with ethnic names. During harsh economic times, finding employment can become difficult and consumers tend to limit purchasing to essential items. These economic stresses require businesses to re-evaluate product and service development to retain viability.

Good & Bad Effects of Modern Technology

As humans have evolved, so has their technology. From the first rock arrowheads to globe-spanning communications networks, humans have attempted to use technology to improve the length and quality of life. Yet, while technology has produced an enormous number of benefits for mankind, it has been responsible for a number of pernicious effects as well.

Longer Life

  • In the 20th century alone, the average lifespan of a human has increased dramatically, particularly in wealthier, more industrialized nations. This is due primarily to technology. With new agricultural methods and equipment, the world is able to produce more food with less work at a cheaper price. With better medicines and more effective treatments, people can survive diseases that would have once easily killed them.Elderly couple

More Information

  • An era beginning in the late 20th century has already been dubbed by some historians as “the information age”. Improvement in communications technology, beginning with the invention of the printing press in the 15th century and continuing up through the proliferation of the internet in the 1990s, has allowed more people access to an amount of information that would have once been impossible. It helps them to become better educated and more informed.Access to information via the Internet

Mechanized Destruction

  • While technology has greatly improved the overall health of humankind, it has also afforded it the means to kill more people in a shorter period of time than was once possible. Although the ultimate usefulness of nuclear weapons is a matter of ongoing debate, they do, for the first time in history, provide humans with the means of bringing themselves to a rapid extinction.Nuclear bomb test, 1953

Isolation

  • Although the proliferation of communications technology has made it easier than to ever to have a conversation with or write a letter to another person, it has also rendered us more isolated. Computers have significantly reduced the amount of face-to-face interaction people once enjoyed. In place of the richness of human contact, many now settle for the comparatively pale pleasures of computer social networking.Group of people communicating separately

Unintended Consequences

  • Princeton professor Edward Tenner, the author of “Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences,” argues that new technology brings with it a number of unpredictable side effects, some of which are good and some of which are bad. For example, when asbestos was introduced, it was touted an important technological development in fire safety. Decades after it was introduced, however, people learned that exposure to certain types of the substance could cause chronic health problems.Technology is not always a positive

About Modern Technology

Most people in the developed world live in an environment that is totally dominated by and interwoven with modern technology. We live in centrally heated houses that incorporate many high-tech materials, eat scientifically engineered food, travel at high speeds in motorized vehicles, and communicate to a greater and greater extent by electronic means. Technology is having a profound effect on the natural environment, on interpersonal dynamics, and on our minds. As it becomes ever more dominant, it becomes increasingly important to assess technology’s effects critically, and to understand both its benefits and its inherent dangers.

Beginnings

  • Although human beings have always used technology of one sort or another, “modern technology,” in the sense that the term is generally used, began with the Industrial Revolution in the mid-eighteenth century. This era saw a massive cultural shift away from hand- , community- and craft-based methods of production and toward centralized, depersonalized and automated means of manufacture. The second major shift toward the technological world that we live in today occurred with the advent of the transistor and computer technology in the mid-20th century.

Culture and Technology

  • The effect of technology on culture is so widespread that most people are not consciously aware of it. Because it is so present in every aspect of our lives, we tend to live inside of a technological matrix and give little thought to how it might be shaping our society and ourselves. Modern technology is the basis of rapid and easy transportation, global communication, preserved food and most medical intervention, all of which have a profound effect on our lives. These effects include multiculturalism, increased population, urbanization and a general shift away from family and cultural repetition toward a fast-paced, anonymous society.

Computers

  • It is difficult to overestimate the effect of computers on our world. The invention of the transistor in 1947 began a historical shift toward smaller, cheaper and more universal technology that in the coming years may transform the world beyond recognition. Today, with the ubiquity of computers, mobile telephones, pagers and satellite communications, true solitude is becoming a thing of the past. Human consciousness is networking itself ever more tightly into a global consciousness in which the smallest minutiae of a life become fodder for public discussion.

Benefits

  • Modern technology has overcome many of the difficulties of human life. The invention of penicillin has prevented millions of deaths from disease and infection. Labor-saving machines do the drudgery that used to require the toil of thousands. Printing, distribution and electronic technologies have allowed books and information of all kinds to penetrate every level of society. For nearly anyone with the motivation to seek them, opportunities are present in far greater number than for most people of earlier times.

Dangers

  • Every benefit has its price. The more blatant effects of technology are well known: The devastating assault on the natural world, climate change, the dangers of excessively processed food, poorly understood chemical hazards, and the social alienation that comes with huge cities and anonymous lives. In addition to these, there are the more subtle and little understood dangers that occur within the human mind. The increasing pace of contemporary life leads to stress and burnout, and the tidal wave of information that is entering people’s lives, if not properly managed, can lead to disorientation and despair.

About Miniaturization in Computer Technology

The semiconductor industry is competitive and endlessly endeavors to replace yesterday’s computer technology with smaller chips, with features as small as a thousandth of the width of a human hair. The idea is to get more transistors on a single chip. Increasing the number of transistors ultimately leads to more power in the computer, cell phone, handheld PDA and other electronic devices that have a computer chip inside. In our times just about every electronic device has a computer chip inside. The pursuit to make these devices more powerful, and thus effectively independent of a constant power source, is the focus for miniaturization in computer technology. Ultimately the goal is to have computers everywhere by making components smaller and more powerful. These days you can buy one megabyte of memory for less than a stick of gum.

History

  • Technical giants around the world have accomplished innovations in miniaturization of computers to the degree of making older computers obsolete almost as quickly as they were put on the public market for sale. The commercial market for computer technology is so competitive that every giant in the industry of microprocessors is focused like a laser on erecting the next smallest microchip. The seemingly endless battle over miniaturization of computer technology may in fact be nearing an end. As computer chips get smaller, it becomes more difficult to construct components to fit on the chips.

Function

  • Manufacturers use a process known as lithography to create an artwork of circuitry that is layered over a silicon substrate. This method is changing rapidly. The problem with the functionality of this type of chip is the continuous pursuit of shrinking the size of the chip. In this miniaturization process, the surface area of the chip declines, leaving less room for the components that make the computer run faster or store more data. Components are more difficult to shrink in size. With fewer components, the capacity of the computer chip will come to a halt at some point in the design process. Even the creation of microscopic chips with nanotechnology will require innovation on the macro level. The macro level is the portion of physical reality that humans move around in. With nano computers we still need a way of plugging them into a macro conduit — power cables, outlets and peripherals like computer monitors.

Size

  • Miniaturization is especially important in the surface area of microchips, with components interconnected across the face of the chip. As surface area decreases, engineers are faced with the problem of designing newer and faster circuit designs. The problem with the new nano technology is in the wiring of nano devices. There isn’t an outlet or even a cable to plug in nano devices. Currently, small wiring is placed on top of silicon-based chips in which molecules replace the wiring. Wires can be up to 5,000 times longer than they are wide.

Potential

  • The future of miniaturization of computer technology will be in three-dimensional circuits. These cubes will replace the two-dimensional chips in computer technology. One of the benefits of using cubes is the surface area. A six-sided cube can contain more components than the standard computer chip. This new design shows prospect for the future in that a shrunken cube still retains a larger surface area than the smallest chip. With this new surface area, engineers can place more components on microprocessor. With more components, processors become faster and have a greater capacity for storing information.

Considerations

  • One of the bigger considerations for making computer technology smaller is the availability of the Internet. As computers are miniaturized down to the subatomic level, computers could literally be floating around in the air. By building computers on the subatomic level, the laws of physics do not apply as we know them. This allows for greater flexibility in computer connectivity, and may eventually make wiring computers together obsolete.

What Jobs Can You Get with a Computer Technology Degree?

Computer technology is a field with numerous career options. The number of opportunities available depends on the level of education you attain. An associate’s degree will open up several opportunities, while a bachelor’s degree will open up several more. Students of computer technology generally learn about both computer hardware and software. The quickly changing field of computer technology also makes it necessary to maintain ongoing education throughout your career.

Computer Support Specialist

  • Because the computer technology field changes rapidly and continuously, individuals and businesses will always be in need of professionals who can help them troubleshoot and streamline their computers and network systems. An associate’s degree in computer technology can prepare you for a career as a computer support specialist. A computer support specialist is someone who provides a service to computer owners by providing technical advice or even hands-on assistance for computer-related problems or glitches. Computer support specialists can be employed in a hardware- or software-related industry. Because they are well versed in a number of different computer applications, they sometimes write support manuals for software and hardware companies. They also sometimes simply perform the role of a customer service specialist by responding to inquiries from the general public. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects continued growth in this field at a rate of about 14 percent in terms of job growth through 2018. As of May 2008, the average wage of computer support specialists nationwide was $43,450.

Software Developer

  • A bachelor’s degree in the field of computer technology can prepare you for a career in software development. Many schools offer various areas of specialization within their computer and information technology degree programs. Students choosing a career in software development can expect even better job growth according to Bureau of Labor Statistics projections. Through 2018, the number of jobs in this field is expected to increase by 21 percent. In short, computer software developers use math and computer science to develop, test and analyze software. Software development tracks like the one offered at Purdue University train students in languages like C programming and visual programming. They also introduce students to other topics like programming for the internet and object-oriented software design. The median annual salary for software developers, as of May 2008, was $85,430.

Computer Networking

  • Because of the increased importance of the internet and the use of computer networks in business, students in computer technology may choose to follow the career path of a computer networking architect or administrator. This field is yet another where the job growth is expected to be particularly good through 2018 with a projected rate of job growth around 30 percent. Computer network architects are responsible for planning and implementing networks for homes and businesses. Network administrators are responsible for installing networks as well, but often play a key role in the ongoing administration and maintenance of the network. They work in a variety of settings including businesses and academic institutions. Pay varies according to what setting you work in, but the average annual wage of network administrators, as of May 2008, was $66,310. Most network administrators have obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Positive Effects of Modern Technology

Despite the occasional hazard and pitfall, there are many advantages to modern technology. People use technology to communicate with the outside world, to make new friends, to become informed, and to stay in touch with one another. Modern technology also improves the quality of life for people with serious medical conditions and prevents many deaths from occurring.

Long-Distance Communication

  • In earlier periods of history, people stayed in long-distance contact with one another by writing letters. This was a risky proposition because letters did not always arrive at their intended destination. Fortunately, modern technology has improved both the speed and the ease of long-distance communication. People are now able to stay in contact with one another through the use of social networking programs, as well as emailing, video conferencing and texting. According to Kathi Kitner from the “Brisbane Times,” one of the things women most enjoy about the Internet is that email allows them to stay in touch with family and friends who no longer live near by.

Access to Information

  • People use modern technology to gain access to vital information. The U.S. Impact Study “Opportunity For All,” examined how the use of Internet access at public libraries benefited the public. They found that people use computers to research types of diseases and explore treatment options. Unemployed or underemployed workers use the Internet to search for jobs and apply for positions that match their skills. People also apply for colleges or job training programs, search for government assistance and benefits, and access legal forms. Students use computers as a valuable research tool for finding online information or locating books related to their research topic.

Natural Disasters

  • Although natural disasters cannot be prevented through the use of modern technology, gathering data is critical to saving lives. Volcanologists and seismologists, for example, use data to map geographic areas, establish areas of structural vulnerability, and use sensors to monitor the behavior of volcanoes and earthquakes so that they can predict when a natural disaster is likely to occur. Meteorologists are able to warn people about the onset of hurricanes and floods so that they can make arrangements to evacuate.

Medical Technology

  • According to the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, technological progress has revolutionized medical care. Serious illnesses can be prevented by early diagnostic protocols using imaging techniques. For example, a photo-acoustic imaging technique was under development in 2007 for the early detection of breast cancer. Another hybrid imaging process that uses aspects of positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with magnetic resonance therapy allows medical care practitioners to non-invasively monitor brain tumors and other conditions. In eye care, retinal implants prevent blindness in patients suffering from retinal deterioration.

Emerging Technology in Business

Information technology has transformed the social and business environment. Technology often deals with methods or tools used to gather, manipulate, store and communicate information. Many businesses have implemented technology designed for personal use to reduce business costs and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of production methods. Companies also use technology to open several domestic or international business locations. Emerging technology includes new or advanced hardware or software.

Facts

  • Emerging technology is a sector of information technology responsible for developing new products or devices that are expected to be widely used in the next 5 to 10 years. Businesses often look to emerging technologies for new services or devices that will help them create a competitive business advantage. Emerging technology might also include advancements of technologies the business already uses. These advancements often allow companies to enhance business operations at a cheaper cost.

Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

  • Two important emerging technology fields for businesses are robotics and artificial intelligence. Robotics is an engineering science and technology field that uses electronic or mechanical technology to replace human labor. Manufacturing and production firms currently use robots in their systems, and the robotics technology industry seeks to expand to other business industries. Artificial intelligence focuses on creating intelligent machines for businesses to use. Businesses use this technology by entering information into business machines that can develop the information and make accurate predictions and identify trends.

Research and Development

  • Emerging technology helps companies create more effective and less costly research and development processes. Photonic computing, quantum computing, biometrics and nanotechnology are a few technologies that allow companies to find new ways for researching and breaking down information and other business processes. These technologies are commonly used in the chemical, petroleum, medical and other industries. Increased research and development technologies can help companies develop products more efficiently and bring them to the consumer market faster than in previous years.

Increased Communication

  • Technology can improve how a business communicates, and several new communication methods are in the emerging technology pipeline. One emerging communication technology is virtual offices, where employees meet, discuss various situations and complete business functions. Voice over Internet Protocol is used for communicating via audio or video technology equipment. These technologies allow companies to work with employees or other companies around the world.

Misconceptions

  • Companies might not be able to use technology to replace or enhance every aspect of business operations. Certain business functions require the use of human labor or intelligence, including analyzing and assessing business situations or financial information. Consumers might find companies too impersonal when copious amounts of technology are implemented into a business’ operations. Consumers might not appreciate the technological advancements when they perceive that companies are unwilling to handle customer service situations in a personal manner.

Information About Modern Technology

Technology is well-established. From car remotes to medical procedures, technology is part of our lives. Each day, new technological ideas or products are introduced. Because technology is so prevalent in the modern world, it is worth exploring what effects modern technology has on us. The effects of technology can be both positive and negative.

Accountability

  • Technology has given us nearly instant communication. In addition, more people are able to view information and products than ever before. The increase in communicative ability and access to data is beneficial in that it creates a certain level of accountability. For instance, members of the media are under more pressure to report accurately, since the data they report is seen by potentially millions of people worldwide.

Travel

  • Better technology in many instances has led to better travel. Planes fly more efficiently to more places than ever before, for example. The benefit is that it is very easy to transport both people and goods from place to place. The resulting global economy keeps prices low. People do not need to work or live only in their native area. However, better travel also means that people are more likely to spread disease from place to place, and a global economy means that some inferior or unsafe products may be widely distributed.

Health Improvements

  • For the most part, increased technology has led to improvements in health. Doctors now have ways to tell how sterile an environment or tool is. They have many different machines that can monitor vital signs or that can be used in medical procedures. Without this technology, many people would not recover from their illnesses, and disease would spread more rapidly.

Health and Other Concerns

  • Although modern technology can improve health, there is concern that the excessive use of technology may promote some health problems. For instance, those who work in front of a computer screen or who watch a lot of television every day are more sedentary, which can lead to physical problems. There also is concern that technology is reducing the social skills held by people and that it allows for a decrease in safety, such as with child pornography posted on the Internet. Additionally, modern technology may be creating some problems in that it can be used improperly, such as with atomic bombs during war.

Considerations/Regulations

  • Whether technology is beneficial or harmful depends largely on the way it is used and who is wielding the technology. For instance, computer email can be used to share family photographs, or it can be used to send out attachments that damage the recipient’s computer and steal information. Some regulations on modern technology thus are needed in order to guarantee or to protect individual and social safety.

Pyrolysis is an Emerging Green Technology

http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/169471/169471,1274632891,1/stock-photo-green-technology-53684152.jpgIn a wood fire, the visible flames are not due to combustion of the wood itself, but rather of the gases released by its pyrolysis; whereas the flame-less burning of embers is the combustion of the solid residue (charcoal) left behind by it.

Although the basic concepts of the process have been validated, the performance data for an emerging technology have not been evaluated according to methods approved by EPA and adhering to EPA quality assurance/quality control standards.

Waste is converted to a fuel by heating the waste which burns just as coal or wood does under the right controlled conditions. Whereas incineration fully converts the input waste into energy and ash, these processes limit the conversion so that combustion does not take place directly.

Waste Plastic under pressure and catalytic cracking produces fuel and can be used as a fuel source. Under certain temperature conditions the plastic macromolecular chains are broken down into small molecular chains (simple hydrocarbon compounds) and those small molecular compounds contain C4 to C20, this compound is a component of petrol, coal oil, and diesel.

Anhydrous pyrolysis can also be used to produce liquid fuel similar to diesel from solid biomass.

Fast pyrolysis occurs in a time of a few seconds or less. Therefore, not only chemical reaction kinetics but also heat and mass transfer processes, as well as phase transition phenomena, play important roles. Fast pyrolysis is a process in which organic materials are rapidly heated to 450 – 600 degrees C in absence of air. Under these conditions, organic vapors, permanent gases and charcoal are produced.

Researchers at Virginia Tech have identified pyrolysis as a potential technology for disposing of poultry litter. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop transportable pyrolysis units to process the waste from poultry growers within one locality, thus reducing transportation cost. Researchers believe that the char, an inert and highly porous material, plays a key role in helping soil retain water and nutrients, and in sustaining microorganisms that maintain soil fertility. Researchers have obtained from wood – initially beech and then coniferous species – oils with almost ideal characteristics. Straw, which has a lower energy yield – 50% as opposed to 70% for wood – is also due to be analysed in the near future.

Bill Gates’ personal investment vehicle, is reportedly backing Sapphire Energy, a start up working towards a commercial-scale facility to produce oil from algae, but we think he would do well to look at gasification and pyrolysis as his energy technology because there are so many possibilities in this technology.

Gasification technology also offers the possibility to create a new domestic supply of gas. It works by converting the hydrocarbons in coal, biomass and waste petroleum products into a gas called “syngas” that can be used in place of natural gas to generate power, or used in manufacturing as fuel or feedstock. Gasification avoids many problems which can occur in biogas digesters, and is also able to process lignin and cellulose, which are hard to ferment.

Computer Technology & Crime Fighting

Modern technology has completely revolutionized how crimes are investigated and solved. Information that used to take weeks or months to discover can now be determined in a matter of hours or days. Locating a suspect can sometimes be done in seconds if he has a current address or phone number available on the Internet. Law enforcement officials have had to be educated on emerging computer technology so that they can reap the maximum benefit in its uses towards catching criminals and solving crimes.

National Databases

  • One large advantage that law enforcement now enjoys thanks to modern computer technology is the ability to connect information databases from various law enforcement agencies. Where a suspect used to be able to jump state lines to avoid detection, computers make it much easier for officers to be aware of crimes outside their jurisdiction so that patterns can be detected, and criminals can be tracked with the assistance of other agencies.

Surveillance

  • Modern cameras not only allow law enforcement many more options in identifying suspects at a crime scene, but digital memory also allows for much larger amounts of data to be stored more efficiently over a long period of time. The footage that is pulled off of the surveillance system is usually of better quality than the analog tapes of yesteryear. Computers can now clean up the image to get a clear rendering of a suspect’s face for either an ID or for court evidence.

Internet Searches

  • When a suspect goes on the run from law enforcement, he will still frequently seek out old friends, relatives and colleagues so that he can receive help in his flight. Police officers can now locate the names and possible addresses of potential contacts over the Internet, where social pages like Facebook and other Internet sites offer a large assortment of personal information about many suspects that is beneficial to police investigations.

Bullet Identification Technology

  • While forensics experts are already very skilled at analyzing the characteristics of bullets and shell casings that were used at the scene of a crime, new technology allows a laser engraving to be conducted on both the projectile of a bullet and the inside of the shell casing that can later be scanned and traced back to the store and the specific ammo box that it originally came from. While this won’t prove a suspect did the shooting in an investigation, it will allow for detectives to have a starting point. In the past, they may have been working without solid leads.

DNA Technology

  • Computer technology now allows for DNA to be analyzed and compared so that suspects can either be matched to a scene of a crime or they can be eliminated. The DNA that is found in blood, saliva, skin cells, hair and fingernails is much more accurate than traditional fingerprints in both identifying and ruling out suspects when DNA evidence is found on a crime scene. Not only has DNA technology contributed to sending many criminals to jail, but it has also resulted in the release of suspects who were found to be innocent.

The History of Computer Technology

Computer technology has advanced very quickly over the years. The term computer originally referred to people. It was a job title for those who did repetitive work with math problems. The first programmable digital computers were invented in the 1940s. They were as big as living rooms and were about as powerful as modern day calculators. The PC, or personal computer, became prominent in the 1980s. Today computers are used for every thing imaginable, and the future of computers is guaranteed to bring many changes to modern society.

Early Technology

  • As far back as 300 B.C. humans had tools to help in computations. The first gear driven calculating machine was most likely the “Calculating Clock.” It was created in 1623 by Wilhelm Schickard. The “calculating clock” and other similar inventions lacked accuracy because it was impossible to create gears of the required precision at the time.

Electronic Digital Computers

  • In order to better solve mathematical equations for aiming artillery shells, the U.S. military invested heavily in computer technology. With the help of military money, in 1944 IBM and Harvard collaborated to make the Mark I. This was the first programmable electronic digital computer created. However, it was not purely electrical. It relied on switches, relays, rotating shafts and clutches. It weighed 5 tons and used 500 miles of wire. It employed binary code, a system of 1s and 0s. This is the same basis for digital technology today.

The First Computer Language

  • Programming early computers quickly became somewhat of a hassle. In 1953 Grace Hopper invented the first high level computer language. It helped humans to simplify the binary code used by the computer so they could more simply dictate the computer’s actions. Hopper’s invention was called Flow-matic, and was applied to the Mark I. This language became COBOL, an extremely popular language developed in 1959 and modified over the years to keep pace with changing technology.

Microprocessors

  • In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. This allowed computers to be much smaller than previous incarnations. The first microprocessor was known as the Intel 4004; later Intel developed the 8080, which became the first commercially viable microprocessor. The Intel 8080 sold for $360, considerably less than the millions of dollars charged for the IBM 360 mainframe. In 1975 the 8080 was used in the MITS Altair computer, which was the first PC.

PCs

  • In 1981 IBM put out a more accessible line of computers using the Intel microprocessor. These came equipped with the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS). This programming allowed users to more easily interface with their computers, and was the predecessor for operating systems like Windows Vista and Mac OS X.
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